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The Philosophers' Stone via the Short/Dry/Royal Path with Arsenic/Gur, plus:

20th Century Transmutations of Ag to Au (Jollivet-Castellot, Fulcanelli, Tiffereau, &c.),

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Adept Alchemy

Part II

Modern Transmutations

Chapter 1

Transmutations of Silver


(1)    M. Rulandus
(2)    T. Tiffereau
(3)    R. Hunter
(4)    A. Waite
(5)    Fulcanelli
(6)    F. Jollivet-Castelot
(7)    S. Emmens
(8)    C. Lea
(9)    J. Champion
(10)  References

Gold can be manufactured from other elements by several methods. The transmutation of silver to gold is the least difficult to accomplish. The methods developed by Francois Jollivet-Castelot offer a good chance of success, albeit with great danger due to the use of arsenic. The penultimate means of transmutation is the Philosophers' Stone of any degree, but that is another matter altogether.

Fulcanelli and others Adepts, however, affirm that experiments such as these are not Alchemy, but rather "hyper-chemistry" or "archymy". The following procedures are included in this collection in order to afford a wider perspective to all inquirers, and to console those who fail to complete the Ars Magna.

Most of the 19th and 20th century experimenters in this genre used a variety of "wet" techniques (refluxing with nitric acid, etc.), or "dry" transmutations with alloys in the furnace. Dr. Stephen Emmens used high-pressure hammering (500 tons/sq. in.) of silver at low temperature, followed by fluxing, granulation, more hammering, treatment with "modified nitric acid", and refining.

(1)    Martin Rulandus ~ A Lexicon of Alchemy

    Gold --- Its Artificial Production ~  It is not only by the common operations of mining and digging in the profundities of the earth that it is possible to obtain Gold. It is quite within the powers of Art to imitate Nature in this matter, for Art perfects Nature in this as in many other things. We propose to provide in this place an account of a formal experiment, the worth of which has been tested over and over again, and has in fact become little less than familiar among operators in the pursuit of the Grand Work. In order to perform it a large crucible must be provided, and it must be of such a quality as will be able to resist the action of intense heat. This crucible must be set over a burning furnace, and at the bottom of the vessel there must be strewn Powder of Colophony (a kind of resin) to about the thickness of the little finger. Above this undermost layer there must be another layer of Fine Powder of Iron --- that is, the Finest Iron Filings --- which shall be of the same thickness. Subsequently, the filings must be covered with a little Red Sulphur. Then the fire in the furnace must be increased till the iron filings have passed into a liquid condition. The next operation is to throw in Borax --- that kind which is made use of by goldsmiths for melting gold. To this must be added a like quantity of Red Arsenic, and as much Pure Silver as will be equivalent to the weight of the Iron Filings. Let the entire composition undergo coction by driving the furnace, taking care at the same time not to inhale the steam, on account of the arsenic in the vessel. Take then another crucible into which, by inclining the first vessel, you must pour the cocted matter, having previously stirred it effectually with an iron spatula. Proceed in such a manner that the composition will flow into the second crucible in a purified state, and devoid of recremental matter. By means of the Water of Separation, the Gold will be precipitated to the bottom. When it has been collected, let it be melted in a crucible, and the result will be good Gold, which will repay all pains and expense which have been devoted to its production. This chemical secret is contained in the ‘Hermetic Cabinet’, and the facility with which the experiment can be performed has led many persons to undertake it. The authority cited in support of it is no less than that of the most learned Basil Valentine, who also affirms that the operation of the Grand Work of the Philosophers can be performed in less than three or four days, that the cost should not exceed three or four florins, and a few earthen vessels are sufficient for the whole experiment.

(2)    Theodore Tiffereau

Between 1854-55, Theodore Tiffereau submitted six memoirs to the French Academie des Sciences concerning transmutations of silver to gold. He published a compilation of the papers ( Les Metaux sont des Corps Composes ) in 1855.(25-27)

Tiffereau conducted his experiments at considerable expense while supporting himself making daguerotypes in Mexico. Tiffereau claimed that Mexican silver possesses peculiar qualities that lend to its augmentation as gold (Dr. Emmens also used Mexican silver in his work). While he claimed success in principle, he made no capital gains. Tiffereau demonstrated his process at the French Mint in Paris before the assayer M. Levol, but the results were unsatisfactory.

Tiffereau attempted many modifications of his techniques, and claimed that certain experimental conditions influence the transmutation of silver to gold:

1) Pure silver filings were used, sometimes mixed with pure copper filings (Ag 9:1 Cu) and traces of zinc, iron, alumina and silica;

2) Trace amounts of gold catalyze the reaction;

3) The silver was refluxed with concentrated nitric acid, hyponitrous acid, and nitrogen protozide or deuteroxide;

4) Concentrated sulfuric acid was used at times;

5) The acids were exposed to sunlight to "solarize" them. Tiffereau complained that the French sun was not so effective as the Mexican;

6) Halides and sulfur in the presence of oxides of nitrogen improved the reaction, and so did ozone;

7) Prolonged reaction time increased yields.

Tiffereau attributed the production of gold in the earth to the action of the "microbe of gold". This was confirmed in the 1980s by the discovery that placer gold nuggets form around a nucleus of bacillus cereus.

The following experiment is typical of Tiffereau's general methods:

"After having exposed, over two days, pure nitric acid to the action of solar rays, I added pure silver filings with pure copper filings in the proportions of the alloy of money (9:1). A lively reaction manifested, accompanied with a very abundant deposit of intact filings agglomerated in a mass.

"The disengagement of nitrous gas continued without interruption, and I left the liquid as is over twelve days. I noted that the aggregate deposit was augmented sensibly in volume. I then added a little water to the dissolution in which the product had precipitated, and again abandoned the liquid to rest five days. During this time, new vapors unceasingly disengaged.

"The five days having passed, I raised the liquid just to ebullition, which I maintained until the nitrous vapors ceased disengagement, after which I evaporated it to dryness.

"The matter obtained from the dessication is dry, dull, blackish-green; it did not offer an appearance of crystallization...

"Placing the matter again in pure nitric acid and boiling six hours, I saw the matter become clear green without ceasing to aggregate in small masses. I added a new quantity of pure concentrated nitric acid and boiled it anew; it is then that I finally saw the disaggregated matter take the brilliance of natural gold...

[The third test in this series] "presented an extraordinary phenomenon to be noted: the quantity of the alloy that I used experienced a transformation entirely to pure gold."

Carey Lea suggested that Tiffereau and other experimenters had merely prepared a gold-colored form of allotropic silver.

(3)    R. M. Hunter

In 1908, Sir Henry Baskerville made mention of a contemporary claim to the production of artificial gold:

"Among the many communications reaching the writer, one is of more than passing interest. Mr. R.M. Hunter, of Philadelphia, has written concerning 'synthetic gold' as follows:

"I have so perfected the process that in my judgment, based on my actual experience, gold may be manufactured at enormous profit, and to this end I have designed a plant to be erected in Philadelphia and am at this moment negotiating for $500,000 capital for its erection. I realize that the public and most scientific men are adverse to the belief in the possibility of such an enterprise, but I know what I am doing and can afford to allow public sentiment to follow its own course.

"Enclosed with the letter was an affirmative affadavit. On request, Mr. Hunter promptly forwarded me samples of silver in which the gold is 'growing' and some 'grown-up' gold, said to have been produced by his secret process. I have not made analyses of the samples." (5)

(4)    Arthur E. Waite

The eminent occultist Arthur E. Waite wrote A Collection of Alchymical Processes which includes a segment entitled "Silver Transmuted Into Gold By The Action Of Light":

"In the focus of a Burning-Glass, 12 inches in diameter, place a glass Flask, 2 inches in diameter, containing Nitric Acid, diluted with its own volume of water:

"Pour into the Nitric Acid, alternately, small quantities of a Solution of Nitrate of Silver and of Muriatic acid, the object being to cause the Chloride of Silver to form a minutely divided state, so as to produce a milky fluid, into the interior of which the brilliant convergent cone may pass, and the currents generated in the Flask by the Heat may so drift all the Chloride through the Light.

"The Chloride, if otherwise exposed to the Sun, merely blackens on the surface, the interior parts undergoing no change: This difficulty, therefore, has to be avoided. The Burning-Glass promptly brings on a decomposition of the salt, evolving, on the one hand, Chlorine, and disengaging a metal on the other. Supposing the experiment to last two or three entire hours, the effect will then be equal to a continuous midday sun of some 72 hours. The Metal becomes disengaged very well. But what is it? It cannot be silver, since Nitric acid has no action on it. It burnishes in an Agate Mortar, but its reflection is not like that of silver, for it is yellowish, like that of Gold.

"The Light must therefore have so transmuted the original silver as to enable it to exist in the presence of Nitric Acid." ( 28)

(5)    Fulcanelli

The renowned master Fulcanelli published this transmutation of silver in Les Demeures Philosophales:

"The simplest alchemic procedure consists in utilizing the effect of violent reactions --- those of acids on the bases --- to provoke in the midst of the effervesence the reunion of pure parts, their new arrangement being irreducible. In this manner, starting from a metal close to gold --- preferably silver --- it is possible to produce a small quantity of the precious metal. Here is, in this order of research, an elementary operation whose success we guarantee, providing the instructions are carefully followed.

"Empty into a glass retort, tall and tubular, one-third of its capacity in pure nitric acid. Adapt to the receiver an escape tube and arrange the apparatus in a sand bath.

"Gently heat the apparatus short of reaching the boiling point for the acid (83o C). Turn off the fire, open the tube, and introduce a small portion of virgin silver, or of cupel, free from gold traces. When the emission of peroxide of azote has stopped and when the effervesence has quieted, let drop into the liquor a second portion of pure silver. Repeat introducing metal, with no hurry, until the boiling and issuing of red vapors manifest little energy, which is indicative of the property of saturation. Add nothing more. Let it rest for half an hour, then cautiously decant your clear solution into a beaker while it is still warm. You will find a thin deposit in the form of black sand. Wash this with lukewarm water, and let it fall into a small porcelain capsule. You will recognize by making the assays that the precipitate is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, just as it also is in nitric acid. Aqua regia will dissolve it and yields a magnificent yellow solution, exactly like gold trichloride. Use distilled water to dilute this liquor; precipitate from a zinc blade. An amorphous powder will be obtained, very fine, matte, of reddish brown coloration, identical to that given by natural gold reduced in the same manner. Wash well and dessicate this pulvurent precipitate. By compression on a sheet of glass or marble, it will give you a brilliant, coherent lamina with a beautiful yellow sheen by reflection, green by transparence, having the look and superficial characteristics of the purest gold.

"To increase with a new quantity this miniscule deposit, you may repeat the operation as many times as you please. In this case, take up again the clear solution of silver nitrate diluted from the first washing water; reduce the metal with zinc or copper. Decant this silver into a powder and use it for your second dissolution." (14)

(6)    Francois Jollivet-Castelot

Francois Jollivet-Castelot was the Secretary General (and later President) of the Alchemical Society of France (founded in 1896). He also edited the Society's journal L'Hyperchemie, and served as a special delegate of the Supreme Council of Martinists. He authored several books and articles on alchemy and "hyperchemistry", a system of non-occult chemical methods of transmutation. (17-20)

Jollivet-Castelot began experimenting with transmutations of silver in 1908. In 1920, he published La Fabrication Chimique de L'Or to report his successes using both "wet" and "dry" methods of transmutation:

"By means of catalytic action I have succeeded in manufacturing gold chemically by acting on silver with arsenic and antimony sulfides, tellurium, and tin.

"This process gives a very high yield which has already been confirmed by several chemists, in particular by Mr. Ballandras, Chemical Engineer of Lyons, and Mr. Outon, Chemical Engineer of Buenos Aires...

"The object of the present leaflet is to enable chemists to repeat and check my experiments in their turn...

"I made a mixture composed of 3 gr of chemically pure silver and 1 gr of chemically pure orpiment and placed it in 36o nitric acid for several months cold and then brought it to ebullition. The liquid was kept at the boiling point for several days. A small quantity of the material became detached at this moment and formed a pulvurent black deposit. When no further action took place, I decanted off the solution and collected the insoluble residue. This residue was attacked by aqua regia at the boiling point until it was almost completely dissolved; the liquor when decanted and filtered was analyzed and gave all the characteristic reactions for gold.... [December 1925]

"I acted on 22 gr of chemically pure silver ... and on 3.5 gr of chemically pure orpiment... The mixture was heated to about 1600o C In a metal smelting furnace for about three quarters of an hour. The residue obtained was again melted with the addition of orpiment. After having hammered for half an hour and remelted with the addition of small quantities of orpiment every ten minutes, it was withdrawn.

"After cooling and the addition of chemically pure antimony sulfide, it was again put back into the furnace, small quantities of orpiment being thrown in every five minutes. The residue obtained had a dark metallic tint. After hammering it became slightly golden.

"The residue dissolved in chemically pure 36o nitric acid first cold and then hot, gave an abundant pulvurent deposit. This deposit after being washed and treated with ammonia to dissolve the arsenic and antimony salts was completely dissolved in aqua regia. The liquor then being chlorinated and filtered was subjected to the reagents of platinum and gold. Mr. Andre Vandenberghe who was acting as preparator for this experiment, had thought that in accordance with the law of the evolution of matter, the transmutation of bodies into gold should be preceded or accompanied by their transmutation into platinum...

"The reactions of gold were quite characteristic; the reactions of platinum also seemed to reveal its presence.

"The quantity of gold obtained in this experiment was about one gramme.

"I submit the hypothesis that the arsenic acts as a catalyst and the sulfur as a ferment in this transmutation." (December 1925; Douai, France)...

"As a sequel to my previous work on the artificial synthesis of gold, I have introduced tin into these new tests as it is also often associated with gold in Nature. The following is a description of this new process, thanks to which the percentage of gold obtained destroys all the objections that are raised with regard to impurities.

"I made an intimate mixture of 6 gr of chemically pure silver... 2 gr of antimony sulfide, 1 gr of orpiment, and one gr of tin... I then added the usual fluxes and then heated the whole in a crucible in the furnace to about 1100o C for about one hour, twice adding a small quantity of SbS.

"The residue obtained was treated for a long time in 36o nitric acid, first cold and then at the boiling point; the insoluble residue was next washed with distilled water, treated with ammonia, washed again and finally treated for a long time with boiling aqua regia.

"The liquor when filtered and subjected to the reagents of gold showed the presence of this metal in the form of abundant deposits which may be estimated at 0.05 gr in all, which is very high considering the 6 gr of silver employed. The deposits when collected and dried had a yellow green metallic color and possessed all the characteristics of gold...

"The addition of tin to the other bodies has certainly facilitated the reactions of the gold and increased the yield of this metal which can be manufactured artificially by my process, i.e., by synthesis and in measurable quantities.

"It would be very easy to show that, given the respective prices of gold and of the other substances that are used in my process to produce it, a profit could be obtained if the process were worked industrially, all the more so as the greater part of the silver employed can be recovered at each test..

"I believe I now hold the key to the regular and even industrial manufacture of gold.

"But the industrial question is voluntarily put aside from my thoughts, for my only object is the search for pure scientific truth."

In a correspondence to Jollivet-Castelot, Mr. Ballandras reported on "How I Succeeded In Making Gold According To The Process of Mr. Jollivet-Castelot: Dosage of gold obtained by the second method":

"From a mixture of 10 gr silver, 3 gr of tin, 3 gr of arsenic sulfide, and 3 gr of antimony sulfide, the residue which had been obtained was crushed as much as possible and subjected to a treatment of pure chloric acid like in the first method. However, in order to completely eliminate the silver and the tin employed, I scrupled to begin again the indicated treatments, that is as much to say that the powder which was obtained having been subdued first to the action of azotic acid, then washed with distilled water, then subdued to the action of chloric acid, then washed with distilled water, then once more washed with distilled water, and these different operations were begun once again with another portion of pure chloric acid... The insoluble residue was subdued to the prolonged action of aqua regia...

"It must be noted that this thing happened during the ebullition. The washed residue contained the slighter part of gold; this thing would be found dissolved in the last liquor which I obtained.

"After 18 hours of digestion at about 25o, I subdued the mixture to ebullition during 3 hours. After refrigeration, I filtered on glass wool and I looked if parts were not drawn along in suspense. I found nothing. Then, I decided to proceed to a circumstantial analysis of the liquor which I obtained...

"The quantity of gold which was obtained was 0.476 gr for 10 gr of silver employed, or 0.0476 gr of gold per gram of silver."

Jollivet-Castelot read this memorandum to the Academie Royal des Sciences (Belgium) on June 6, 1926:

"A Recent Experiment In Transmutation --- All my research work on transmutation since 1908 has started from the fact that gold is found in nature associated with antimony and arsenic sulfides as well as with tellurium, which is considered as a mineralizer of gold. I therefore considered that it was logical to introduce tellurium into the artificial combination of silver and arsenic and antimony sulfides that I make...

"I prepared a mixture composed of 6 gr of silver, 1 gr of native orpiment free of gold, 1 gr of antimony sulfide and 2 gr of tellurium... I added pure silica to the usual fluxes. This mixture was heated in the furnace in the usual way for one hour at about 1100o C. The residue obtained was of a blackish-grey color with violet reflections. It weighed 6.42 grams.

"When subjected to the action of nitric acid, the residue was attacked with difficulty and greenish metallic particles become detached. The solution was then decanted and a greenish-yellow residue remained which was kept at the boiling point of nitric acid for several hours. After decanting off the liquor once again, the residue, which had not changed, was washed, treated with ammonia and then subjected to the action of boiling aqua regia in which it was entirely dissolved after boiling for several hours.

"[The solution was chlorinated and subjected to the reagents of gold with positive results, although] a certain amount of gold was certainly lost in this test just as in all my previous tests, for it is known that arsenic, antimony, and tellurium entrain gold in their fusion and their volatilization.

"In order to obviate this disadvantage, I had thought of making the vapors of arsenic acid and antimony sulfides and of tellurium act on the silver in fusion in a closed vessel by means of a special device...

"I consider it certain that if the vapors were allowed to bubble through the melted silver, a much higher yield of gold would be obtained than that I have obtained hitherto by an imperfect and too rapid contact of the bodies in presence, while it is undoubtedly necessary to make them react on one another in the vapor state in a closed vessel."

Mr. Louis Outon, a pharmaceutical chemist in Buenos Aires, reported to Jollivet-Castelot in a letter (July 26, 1927):

"Dear Sir... I have repeated the experiments... in my laboratory and am amazed at the results. For the moment, it is only the scientific side which interests me, since the cost of the gold obtained is often greater than the value of the metal..."

Mr. A. Ballandras also replicated the experiments and reported the results:

"I will not conceal the fact that I have often heard ironical remarks aboutprocesses by which he succeeded in manufacturing gold. I determined to check his tests with the greatest possible accuracy...

"In a new quartz crucible, I placed 15 gr silver, 6 gr arsenic sulfide, 6 gr antimony sulfide. The crucible was heated at a temperature of 500o C and then for one hour and a half at 1100o C. At this moment the mass was fairly liquid... The crucible was then allowed to cool down. The reddish-brown residue obtained weighed exactly 23.742 gr, or a loss of 3.258 grams.

"I allowed this residue to cool in pure nitric acid in which the greater part was dissolved fairly easily. After prolonged boiling the liquor was filtered on a new glass wool. The resultant liquor was very clear and absolutely free of any particles.

"The glass wool was then macerated in aqua regia rich in hydrochloric; after 18 hours maceration, the whole was boiled for 3 hours. I again filtered on glass wool in order to separate any traces of the filter from the liquor... Any gold that might have been obtained would necessarily be found in the last liquor... It was of importance to prove its existence qualitatively at least.

"For this purpose, I tried the various standard reagents, the results being the following: 1) Oxalic acid: flakey precipitate; 2) Iron sulfate: glossy metallic black; 3) Tin chloride: peach pink precipitate; 4) Formol: rather light bluish coloration; 5) Sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate: light coloration after boiling; 6) Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide: yellowish coloration, cloudy.

"These reactions are sufficiently characteristic and clearly prove the existence in the last liquor of a metal which, even if it is not gold, must nevertheless be placed very close to the latter... the metal obtained and gold must be perfectly isotopic.

"I have repeated this test several times and I have observed: 1) That the production of gold is a function of the rapidity with which the necessary heat is obtained; 2) That it is also a function of the degree of tightness of the crucible. A crucible that is closed as tightly as possible gives better results; 3) That the amount of gold obtained was not always uniform; some of the tests were absolutely sterile and I inferred that this was due to some defect in the mounting.

"I think there must be a certain temperature that should not be exceeded and that the external conditions of pressure and electricity must be of considerable importance."

In another experiment, Ballandras used silver (10 gr), tin (3 gr), orpiment (3 gr), and antimony sulfide (3 gr):

"After having operated as previously, I obtained a quantity of gold corresponding to 0.05 gr per gram of silver employed... This I consider to be a highly interesting result."

Francois Jollivet-Castelot

(7)    Dr. Stephen Emmens

Early in 1897, the British chemist Stephen H. Emmens, then residing in New York, announced the discovery of a new element which fills the "vacant space existing in the sub-group of Group I", and which he thought to be the intermediate matter from which silver and gold are formed. Dr. Emmens said:

"Our claim is that the element in question is therefore neither silver nor gold, but which may, by our new physical methods, be converted into gold." (14)

In 1897, Dr. Emmens' Argentaurum Laboratory on Staten Island produced over 660 ounces of gold from silver and sold it to the U.S. Assay Office. He revealed a few historical and technical details of his transmutation process in his book, Argentaurum Papers #1: Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation:

"Our work, which converts silver into gold, had its origin in the course of certain investigations which I undertook for the purpose of preparing chemically pure nickel... in 1892. In attempting to prepare these pure metals [nickel and iron], a certain product was obtained which seemed to differ from anything recorded in the textbooks. The same product was subsequently found when the investigation was extended to the case of metallic cobalt... The phenomena observed afforded indications of the existence of some substance common to the whole of the elements in what is known as Series 4 of Group 8 of the classification of Chemical Elements... It appeared to us almost self-evident that if we were right in supposing a common substance to be present in any single series of elements, the same would hold good for each group.

"And as Group I of the classification contains the precious metals --- gold and silver  ~ it was obvious that our time and attention should be directed to these metals rather than to any other...

"Our starting point, so far as silver and gold were concerned, was afforded by the remarkable discoveries of Mr. Carey Lea with regard to [colloidal silver]... It was found that... this subdivision of metallic silver was attended by very considerable changes in the physical properties of the substance...By certain physical methods and by the aid of a certain apparatus, we succeeded in bringing about a further subdivision of the silver. We were not surprised to find that the substance obtained differed so far from ordinary silver that it could no longer be regarded as the same elementary substance. It seemed to require a new name and a new chemical symbol. Inasmuch, therefore, as our theory was that this substance was common to both gold and silver, and in reality was the raw material out of which both gold and silver were constructed by the hand of nature, we named the substance Argentaurum...

"The next step was to ascertain whether this substance could be so treated as to be grouped into molecules of greater density than those of silver... We found that... Argentaurum can be aggregated into molecules having a density considerably superior to that of ordinary gold molecules. Whether we are right as to this or not, the condensed Argentaurum presents the appearance and is endowed with the properties of ordinary metallic gold...

"We do not consume any chemicals and other costly materials in our process; what we use is mainly energy in some of its various forms, such as heat, electricity, magnetism, gravity, cohesion, chemical affinity, x-rays and the like... Our chief source of expense is the time required for bringing about the desired molecular changes... One ounce of silver will produce three-quarters of an ounce of gold..." (6)

Herbert Fyfe reported that Dr. Emmens' process comprised five stages: 1) mechanical treatment; 2) fluxing and granulation; 3) mechanical treatment; 4) treatment with a "modified nitric acid", and 5) refining. Dr. Emmens said:

"I regard the mechanical treatment as the causa causans. The fluxing and granulation serve, I think, merely to render the molecular aggregate susceptible of displacement and rearrangement." (15)

The mechanical treatment was accomplished by means of Dr. Emmens' "Force Engine", which exerted pressures in excess of 500 tons/in2 at very low temperatures. Step 4, using "modified nitric acid", contradicts the statement made elsewhere, that "we do not consume any chemicals... in our process." (4, 7-12, 15, 16, 23)

Dr. Emmens included a sample of Argentaurum and these instructions in a letter (21 May 1897) to Sir William Crookes:

"Take a Mexican dollar and dispose it in an apparatus which will prevent expansion or flow. Then subject it to heavy, rapid, and continuous beating under conditions of cold such as to prevent even a temporary rise of temperature when the blows are struck. Test the material from hour to hour, and at length you will find more than the trace (less than one part in 10,000) of gold which the dollar originally contained."

Sir Crookes was unable to replicate the experiment to his satisfaction. He reported:

"A specimen of Argentaurum sent me by Dr. Emmens has been examined with the spectrograph. It consists of gold with a fair proportion of silver and a little copper. No lines belonging to any other known elements, and no unknown lines, were detected."

This analysis resembles that of ordinary bullion gold, which contains silver and copper to make it harder and more fusible than pure gold.

In a rejoinder, Dr. Emmens noted:

"I have received a letter from a very eminent Fellow of the Royal Society informing me that he has performed the crucial experiment suggested in my letter of May 21, 1897, to Sir William Crookes. The gold contained in the Mexican dollar after 40 hours of intense cold and continuous hammering was found to be 20.9% more than the quantity of gold contained in the same dollar before the test."

In 1898, Emmens floated the Argentaurum Company, a syndicate which promised that for one ounce of silver (then worth about 50 cents) entrusted with payment of $4.50 per ounce for conversion costs, the investor would be repaid with 3/5 ounce of gold (then worth about $11). Dr. Emmens' application for a patent on his process was refused, however, so production never began, since he would not have been able to protect his methods from unscrupulous competitors. (24, 29, 30)

Dr. Emmens was issued several U.S. Patents for inventions; at least two of them may be related to his process: #501,996 (25 July 1893), Electrolytic bath; and #501,997 (25 July 1893), Apparatus for Electrolytic Extraction of Metals. Dr. Emmens' Force Engine produced hammering pressures in excess of 500 tons/in2 at very low temperatures. These effects can be achieved by a variety of modern methods.

Semantic ambiguities in Dr. Emmens' writings confuse the understanding of the process. At times, Argentaurum refers to a new element, or to the gold produced from it, or to Lea's intermediate allotropic silver.

(8)    Carey Lea

Carey Lea discovered the preparation of so-called "allotropic" and "intermediate" silver in 1889 while he was studying reductions of silver nitrate. "Allotropic" is a misnomer, however. In 1925, Dr. Richard Zsigmondy, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Göttingen, received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his study of Lea's "allotropic" silver under the ultramicrosope. Dr. Zsigmondy found that such silver actually was a monoatomic colloid of ordinary silver, not another isotope.

Lea determined that silver occurs in "allotropic", "intermediate", and ordinary forms. Ordinary silver is protean in nature. The aqueous solutions are colloidal monoatoms, and give perfectly clear solutions. The several forms of "allotropic" silver (a-Ag) dry with their particles in optical contact with each other, thus forming continuous films that are beautifully colored, perfect mirrors. Strong acids and pressure will convert a-Ag to the normal form. There are three forms of a-Ag, and all are unstable. (21, 22)

There is also a very stable "intermediate form" of silver (i-Ag) which is easy to prepare. It occurs as bright gold-yellow or green crystals with a metallic luster. Treatment with a very dilute solution of ferric chloride will enhance the appearance of its foliar structure, interpenetrating with plant-like ramifications, or fine acicular crystals up to 1 inch long.

Intermediate silver is hard, tough, and unaffected by pressure. It is nearly as indifferent to oxidizing and chlorizing agents as is normal silver. Intermediate silver can be formed from the allotropic varieties by light, heat, or chemical action. The simplest preparation is as follows:

"It has long been known that golden-yellow specks would occasionally show themselves in silver solutions, but could not be obtained at will and the quantity thus appearing was infinitesimal. Probably this phenomenon has often led to a supposition that silver might be transmuted into gold. This yellow product, however, is only an allotropic form of silver, but it has all the color and brilliancy of gold, a fact which was apparent even in the minute specks hitherto obtained...

"It is a little curious that its permanency seems to depend entirely on details in the mode of preparation. I have found many ways of obtaining it, but in a few months the specimens preserved changed spontaneously, to normal silver... The normal silver produced in this way is exquisitely beautiful. It has a pure and perfect white color like the finest frosted jewelers' silver, almost in fact exceeding the jeweler's best products. I found, however, one process by which a quite permanent result could be obtained... the following proportions give good results:

"Two mixtures are required: No. 1 containing 200 cc of a 10% solution of silver nitrate, 200 cc of 20% solution of Rochelle Salt [Sodium potassium tartrate] and 800 cc of distilled water. No. 2, containing 107 cc of a 30% solution of ferrous sulfate, 200 cc of a 20% solution of Rochelle salt and 800 cc of distilled water. The second solution (which must be mixed immediately before using only) is poured into the first with constant stirring. A powder, at first glittering red, then changing back to black, falls, which on the filter has a beautiful bronze appearance. After washing it should be removed whilst in a pasty condition and spread over watch glasses or flat basins and allowed to dry spontaneously. It will be seen that this is a reduction of silver nitrate by ferrous sulfate...

"Although the gold-colored silver (into which the nitrate used is wholly converted) is very permanent when dry, it is less so when wet. In washing, the filter must be kept always full of water; this is essential. It dries into lumps exactly resembling highly polished gold...

"If we coat a chemically clean glass plate with a film of gold-colored allotropic silver, let it dry, first in the air, then for an hour or two in a stove at 100o C, and then heat the middle of the plate carefully over a spirit lamp, we shall obtain with sufficient heat a circle of whitish gray with a bright, lustrous golden ring round it, somewhat lighter and brighter than the portion of the plate that has not been changed by heat. This ring consists of what I propose to call the "intermediate form"...

"With sulfuric acid diluted with four times its bulk of water and allowed to cool, an immersion of one or two seconds converts a film on glass or on pure paper wholly to the intermediate form...

"Its properties are better seen by using a film formed on pure paper, one end of which is heated over a spirit lamp to a temperature just below that at which paper scorches. The change is sudden and passes over the heated portion of the surface like a flash. Examining the changed part, we find:

1st.   That it has changed from a deep gold to a bright yellow gold color.

2nd.  When subjected to a shearing stress it does not whiten or change color in the slightest degree.

3rd.   It is much harder, as is readily perceived in burnishing it.

4th.  It no longer shows the color reaction with potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride, changing only by a slight deepening of color.

"Of these characteristic changes the second is the most remarkable. The gold-colored silver in its original condition changes with singular facility to white silver; almost any touch, any friction, effects the conversion...

The intermediate form is distinguished from normal silver almost solely by its bright yellow color and its higher luster."

(9)    Joe Champion

 In 2004, Joe Champion presented a non-toxic method to convert microscopic amounts of silver to gold by the action of phonons:

"In the formation of Ag (or other elements) from a dimensional reaction, the conversion will occur without excess energies or nuclear signatures. By heating Ag to a temperature of 43.2° C. The principle is straightforward and simple without toxicity, by utilizing a heat source that is stable and capable of heating in the range of 100-120° C. Allow the temperature of the silver to stabilize at 43.2° C. It is important that you measure the temperature of the silver and not that of the sand. The function of the sand is to provide an even influx of temperature to the entire area of the silver and it provides an excellent insulator.

"The temperature of 43.2° C is optimum under ideal conditions. It is, however, possible that the temperature may vary within the statistical limits shown in Table 1. When the temperature is exact for the reaction the silver with become endothermic. This means that the temperature will be slightly greater than that of the surrounding sand. A point of interest - this reaction is the same as observed in the working Cold Fusion cells of the past. The scientists were not observing a low energy nuclear event; rather, they were observing an inter-dimensional phenomenon.

"Achievement of the maximum conversion of Ag to Au will depend on the dwell time at resonance temperature. Conversion of Ag to Au can ocur in as little as six hours; 2% conversion takes up to 24 hours.

Theory ~ "The conversion of one element (specifically one isotope) to another through a dimensional reaction occurs under select conditions of phonon resonance. Dimensional phonon resonance occurs when the space occupied by one isotope is exactly the same as that of another isotope in its rest state. This event only occur under the following two conditions: (1) the expansion of an isotope by heating; or, (2) the contraction of an isotope by cooling.

"Due to the natural characteristics of elemental properties, this event is extremely rare and one can only force the event under select conditions. To determine the phonon resonance of an isotope, it is necessary to apply the following formula:

where d is Density in gm/cm3 ,
Na is Avogadro's Constant, and
m is mass.

"By determining the inverse, one will observe the linear atomic spacing.

"Since the resonance frequency and spacing is required for all isotopes, the calculations for most isotopes may be determined:

"When an element is heated or cooled, the atomic spacing will change proportionally to the cube of the product of the temperature (increase/decrease) and the expansion coefficient. To understand, following is the mathematical model for determining the linear spacing in reference to temperature:

where t is the temperature increase,
St is the standardized temperature, and
Ec is the expansion coefficient

"To place this in perspective, to determine the exacting temperature for a dimensional phonon reaction to occur, requires knowing the starting element (specifically the isotope of the starting element if more than one) and the element to be produced. Once this is known, you can apply the following formula:

"This will provide the temperature required within statistical probabilities. A statistical probability deals with the least significant digit (LSD) of each variable. In the case of phonon resonance, this is limited to the density. For example, the density of Ag is 10.50 gm/cm3. Taking that the accuracy is ±1 LSD, we can establish a variable range by applying the following:

Or, +/- 0.0009524

"To place the mathematics in perspective, following is the calculations for the conversion of Ag107 to Au:

"To find the most logical profile requires determining the basic phonon frequencies of all of the stable isotopes.

Conversion of Al to Au ~ "The conversion of Al to Au is an absolute application of dimensional science. In this reaction, gold is produced in its ultra-pure state on a continuous basis. This procedure may be utilized for most elements. The basis of this dimensional occurs in the collection of atomic size particles that form near the resonant metal (in this case aluminum). Due to the size of the particles they appear in what normal chemistry would consider a gas phase. The targeted element (isotope) forms in its singular state and due to the lack of energies present. There are insufficient energies to bind the atoms into a colloidal state.

"In the production of gold from aluminum, the ideal temperature is 302.9° C. These temperatures are optimum for the Al (the Al must be allowed to come into equilibrium with the furnace). Once resonance is established, production is continuous. The Au is captured in water as it is removed from a negative pressure applied to the furnace established by the vacuum pump. However, please be aware that Al will also convert to Ag107 at a temperature of 283.7° C. To understand this, the following chart is supplied:

"The aluminum reaches the phonon resonance of Au it passes through the resonance of Ag. Due to the atomic spacing, Al will not form any other element near this temperature range.

"All of the procedures listed were confirmed by independent laboratory testing..

"At the time of printing the Phonon Conversion of Ag to Au, the genesis mapping of elements was not complete. Based on the above, the following allows the other potential formation patterns for Ag and Au:

z ~ e ~ D gm/cm3 ~ M ~ % abundance ~ Hz ~ phonon spacing/cm3
13 ~ Al27 ~ 2.6989 ~ 26.981 ~ 100.00% ~ 39,200,637 ~ 2.55098E-08
47 ~ Ag109 ~ 10.5 ~ 108.904 ~ 48.16% ~ 38,722,676 ~ 2.58247E-08
47 ~ Ag107 ~ 10.49 ~ 106.905 ~ 51.84% ~ 38,950,170 ~ 2.56738E-08
79 ~ Au197 ~ 19.3 ~ 196.967 ~ 100.00% ~ 38,931,830 ~ 2.56859E-08

"This procedure is nondescript. As easily as zinc, aluminum, titanium or silver converts into gold, so does gold convert into titanium and silver."

In 1997, Champion reported the replication of one of his transmutation experiments by a 16-year old high school student for a science fair project. The original experiment was performed by Dr Bockris at Texas A.M. University (www.transmutation.com/tamu.htm). The ingredients of the experimental formula were:

300 gr  Carbon; 900 gr  Potassium Nitrate; 80 gr  Sulfur; 100 gr  Iron Sulphate; 30 gr  Cadmium; 100 gr  Mercury Chloride; 50 g r Litharge (PbO); 5 gr  Silver (Ag); 30 gr  Calcium Oxide. The ingredients were mixed, placed in a coffee can, and ignited with a torch. The silver increased from 5 to 8.7 grams, and a small amount of gold also was produced. X-ray flourescence and mass spectrometry examinations were made of the materials before and after the ignition.

Joe Champion


(10)    References

1. "A.A.E.": Nature 121 (# 3060), p. 981 (June 23, 1928)

2. "A.C.": Chimie et Industrie, (1927), Suppl. 18/19 (4).

3. Anonymous: Rev. Ind. Chimie Industrielle 37: 63 (1928)

4. Ridpath, J.C.: The Arena (Boston) 19(1): 139-140 (1898); "The Age of Gold"

5. Baskerville, C.: Popular Science Monthly 72 (1): 46-51 (1908); "Some Recent Transmutations"

6. Bolton, Henry C.: Chemical News 76: 61-62 (6 August 1897); "The Revival of Alchemy"

7. Emmens, Dr. Stephen H.: Chemical News 76: 117-118 (3 September 1897); The Engineering & Mining Journal 62 (10): 221, 222 (5 September 1896); "The Transmutation of Silver into Gold"; ibid., 62 (11): 243, 244 (12 Sept. 1896); Emmens, "Transmutation of Ag into Au"; ibid., 62 (14): 315, 316 (3 Oct. 1896); "The Transmutation of Ag into Au"

8. Emmens, Dr. S. H.: Science 5 (112): 314, 315 (19 Feb. 1897); ibid., 5 (113): 343-344 (26 February 1897); "The Argentaurum Papers No. 1, Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation"

9. Emmens, Dr. S. H.: Argentaurana ; G. Du Boistel (Bristol, 1899).

10. Emmens, Dr. S. H.: Science 7 (168): 9, 386-389 (18 March 1898); "The Age of Gold -- A Rejoinder"

11. Emmens, Dr. S. H.: Arcanae Naturae (Paris, 1897)

12. Emmens, Dr. S. H.: Argentaurum Papers #1: Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation; Plain Citizen Publ. Co. (New York, 1896)

13. Fletcher. E. A.: Frank Leslie's Popular Magazine (March 1898)

14. Fulcanelli: Les Demeures Philosophales, vol. 1, p. 184-185, 189-200; J. Pauvert (Paris, 1964)

15. Fyfe, H. C.: Pearson's Magazine (March 1898)

16. Gaddis, V. H.: American Mercury 86: 65-69 (January 1958)

17. Jollivet-Castelot, Francois: Chimie et Alchimie; E. Noury (Paris 1928)

18. Jollivet-Castelot, Fr.: La Fabrication Chimique de L'Or (Douai, 1928)

19. Jollivet-Castelot, Fr.: L'Hyperchimie (Paris, 1896-1901)

20. Jollivet-Castelot, Fr.: La Synthese de L'Or; H. Daragon (Paris, 1909)

21. Lea, Carey: Amer. Sci. J. (Series 3) 37 (222): 476-491 (June 1889); ibid., 38 (223): 47-50 (July  1889); ibid., 38 (224): 129 (August 1889); Ibid., 38 (225): 237-241 (September 1889); ibid., 41 (243): 179-190 (March 1891); ibid., 42 (250): 312-317 (October 1891); ibid.,48 (148): 343 (October 1894); ibid., 51 (24): 259-267 (April 1891); ibid., 51 (246): 282-289 (April 1891).

22. Lea, C.: Zeit. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 7: 340-341 (1894)

23. MacKenzie, J.: Spokane Mines & Electrician (17 February 1897)

24. Ord, W. E.: Knowledge 20: 285 (1 December 1897)

25. Tiffereau. Theodore: Les Metaux Sont Des Corps Composes; Vaugirard (Paris, 1855)

26. Tiffereau, T.: L'Or et le Transmutation des Metaux

27. Tiffereau, T.: Comptes Rendu Acad. Sci. Paris 38: 383, 792, 942 (854); ibid., 39: 374, 642-644, 743, 1205 (1854); ibid., 40: 1317 (1855); ibid., 41: 647 (1855); ibid., 123: 1097 (1896)

28. Waite, Arthur E.: A Collection of Alchymical Processes; S. Weiser (New York, 1987)

29. Woodward, Dr. R. S.: Science 5 (112): 343-344 (19 February 1897)

30. Young, C. A.: Science 5 (113): 343-344 (26 February 1897)




Adept Alchemy

Robert A. Nelson

Internet Edition
Copyright 2000: All rights reserved


Part II: Modern Arcana

Chapter 2

Transmutation of Ores

(1)  T. Moray
(2)  Dunikovski
(3)  A. Klobasa
(4)  D. Hudson
(5)  J. Champion
(6)  References

The synthesis of elements by high-energy bombardment of other elements is common knowledge and practice among nuclear physicists. In their fashion, modern physicists also have accomplished one of the goals of alchemy: the production of artificial gold. The yields are low, however, and the product is unstable and very expensive. Such nuclides find only limited use in medicine and chemistry.

For example, R. Sherr, et al., reported the "Transmutation of Mercury by Fast Neutrons" of lithium and deuterium. These formed three radioactive isotopes of gold by the n-p reaction, and three isotopes of platinum. (11)

In 1980, a group of researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (Glen T. Seaborg, et al.) reported the production of a few billion atoms of gold as the "trivial result" of an experiment with a Bevalac accelerator. A bismuth target was bombarded with a "relativistic projectile" that chipped some protons from the Bi nuclei, forming gold. The experiment produced less than one-billionth of a cent worth of gold. (1, 6, 12)

Andrew Melchanov published this notice in 1980, but nothing has been reported about it since then:  "Soviet physicists at a nuclear research facility near Lake Baikal in Siberia accidentally discovered a fusion reaction for turning lead into gold [in 1972] when they found the lead shielding of one of their experimental reactors had changed to gold." (8)

Several researchers in the 20th century have reported their methods of producing profitable amounts of values from base metals and low-grade ores without the use of nuclear reactors. Some of the methods are genuine low-energy alchemical transmutations.

(1)    Thomas H. Moray ~

The Moray process is a prime example of what is possible. In 1950, Thomas H. Moray was approached with a request to investigate the possibility of improving the extraction of uranium ores. As a matter of course, the Moray Research Institute (MRI) proceeded by bombarding the ore in an "environment" with x-rays as high as 24 MeV before attempting to extract the values. The average ore contained 0.23% uranium oxide. After irradiation, the ore yielded from 7-75% uranium oxide!

In 1953 the MRI proposed that the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) investigate such a project for the "aging" of atomic ores by a "breeding type reaction with high-energy particles or x-rays in the presence of a proper environment." The AEC declined to grant a contract.(7, 9, 10)

In 1958, the MRI adapted its process to the augmentation of precious metal ores. the Moray process uses three main categories of ores, containing traces to a few hundredth of an ounce of gold and silver per ton: 1) low-grade unprocessed gold ore; 2) mill tailings --- especially advantageous; this material costs very little, is ground already, and yields excellent results. High grade ores seem to be less adaptable to this process; they yield much less of an increase in values than do low grade ores:

"Early tests gave yields of 50-100 oz. gold/ton ore. While virtually no gold or silver values can be determined in the raw ore, after irradiation and drying the gold and silver can be identified by standard fire assay or any other normal determination methods...

"Metals not otherwise detected are freed for a separation by normal separating processes. This process does not purport to be a separation process in any way in that upon completion of irradiation the samples will have to be disposed of expediently." (9)

The Moray process utilizes an "environmental solution", developed in 1949. Aging became a problem as chemical reactions continued to take place due to hydration and temperature changes. By 1961, the MRI had refined several formulas of solutions, one or more of which work well with most ore types and do not require any aging. They can be used immediately after mixing and can be stored without adverse effects. Their cost is approximately $50/100 gallons (the volume of solution required to process one ton of ore). The solution is heated to an unspecified "elevated temperature” during irradiation.

In a telephone interview with Ken Jones (September 1981), John Moray said:

"The environmental material consists of a combination of chemicals whose atomic numbers add up to the atomic number of silver or gold and yield silver and gold upon irradiation [The formulas include arseno- and iron-pyrites in alkaline solution]. Antimony has peculiar properties -- it has floating electrons which come in very handy. It is believed that this environment furnishes particles similar to the cosmic ray reaction on the atmosphere. Research work indicates that the radiation must be composed of both high-speed electrons and x-rays. Consistent results under controlled methods were obtained with the addition of a catalyst (a flux or reduction agent, an environment) combined with bombardment of the material ... by an energy bombardment tube developed for the Research Institute."

The "bombardment tube" may be a preferred embodiment of Dr. T.H. Moray's "Electro-Therapeutic Apparatus" (US Patent #2,460,707) The invention is described as follows in the patent abstract:

"An apparatus for applying radiant energy therapeutically, comprising means for producing high potential, high frequency electricity; a high capacity sparking condensor; and a treatment electrode connected in circuit with the foregoing...

"The invention has been described in the foregoing with sole reference to its use for therapeutic purposes. It should be noted, however, that inorganic matter may also be treated to advantage pursuant to the methods and with the apparatus... It has been found that metals, for example, lead, have changed physical properties after treatment in accordance with the above..."

T.R. Dolph published an article about the Moray process (Fate, February 1976), in which he stated:

"Dr. Moray engaged my father-in-law, attorney Victor G. Sagers, Midvale, Utah, to represent him in offering the device to the US Government... Transmutation of metals (yes, turning lead into gold) was demonstrated several times; the government supplied the lead and kept the gold."(5)

John Moray commented on this in a letter to Ken Jones (18 January 1982):

"The article by T.R. Dolph, Garland, TX, is one of those articles written by a crackpot that has in fact mixed together a number of unrelated facts. There is no such device as described in Fate magazine... The bombardment tube does exist. However, this has nothing to do with the recovery of minerals from low grade ore. The bombardment tube is a part of the therapy device.

"The story of gold and lead supplied by the US Government is a complete fabrication. My father and I always detested liars, and this man Dolph is a compulsive liar. His father-in-law, Vick Sagers, would never have said anything similar to what this man has said."

John Moray added this note in a later letter to Ken Jones (11 February 1982):

"The bombardment tube is electrotherapy and does not apply to the mining or mineral recovery process, regardless of how you interpret the patent.

"The patent application is speaking of a "method" and has to do with an individual trained in the art of that "method" which is all the law requires, and therefore, changing the physical properties of lead, i.e., making it possible to be alloyed with copper or developing a lead semi-conductor has nothing to do with the mineral process again."

The services of the eminent physicist W.J. Hooper (Prof. EmEritus, Principia College) and other scientists were solicited in an effort to discover what was producing such results. It appeared to be caused by "a rapid buildup of atoms of relatively low atomic weights to those of much higher atomic weights" such as silver, gold, and platinum.

In a progress report at the 68th National Western Mining Conference (Denver, CO; Feb. 4, 1965), Dr. Hooper announced:

"First of all, I will cite one of several tests carried out in an effort to ascertain whether the modus operandi was actually one of transmutation from elements of low atomic weights to those of the noble metals. A solution was prepared --- made up of Baker’s reagent quality chemicals of the highest purity and water, distilled by boiling. These bottled chemicals list the trace materials which might be existent in them. Gold did not appear on any of these lists even in trace amounts. No atoms of higher atomic number than 19 (K) were present in quantity in this solution. Silver has the atomic number of 47, and gold 79. This prepared solution of pure chemicals in glass containers is irradiated by high energy photons for about one minute and then by evaporation the residue was dried and sent to an independent assayer for analysis... It reads 939.76 oz gold/ton and 113.04 oz silver per ton...

"A point of great interest in the experimental test I have described is that the specks of gold found in the residue of the solutions reveal a marked crystal structure under microscopic examination. It is a coincidence that Miethe, back around 1925, found his formation of gold to be in small crystals also... The process we have described is in reality a crystal growing bath activated by irradiation. As the gold atoms come into being by transmutation, they become gregarious, which results in the crystal formation.

"From this observation there is every reason to suspect that low grade ores and mining tailings provide, not only the seed for crystal growth, but also a nuclei environment which is well advanced or uniquely favorable, for the formation of the precious metals by transmutation."

Dr. Hooper contended that the process is one of nuclear reaction. Dr. Hans Frauenfelde (Univ. Illinois) opined that the energy levels were too much of a departure from the accepted standards to verify this point. Another theory proposes that colloidal gold, lost in the dilution of ore in the environmental solution, is concentrated by the bombardment. The MRI insists that is not the case.

In 1963, MRI conducted experiments with a linear accelerator at the Electronized Chemicals Corporation (Rockford, IL) at energy levels of 11.4-20 meV with doses of 1 megarad. The average yields were 8-9% gold! It was estimated that a production rate of 5 tons of ore per day was possible with the available equipment. Computerized risk analysis indicated that yields over 11.5 oz Au/ton ore could be expected with 99.5% certainty. A higher average (15 oz Au/ton) could be expected in mass production under optimum conditions. Other experiments showed even more promise, yielding 100-200 oz Au/ton (128 oz Au/ton average):

"The standard deviation of yields was rather high due to the constant modification of experimental conditions."

MRI rented time on the Varian Associates’ 8 MeV LINAC in order to test parameters such as dose, dose rate, slurry depth, shield material, electron volt setting, shield height, and the distance of the target from the irradiation source. The shield was a thin sheet of unspecified material placed over the sample while irradiating it:

"In main effects, only electron-voltage setting showed up as significant, with high-voltage setting being better than the low. In addition, several interactions between variables showed up as being significant. An interaction between two variables means that when either variable is changed singly, a significant difference results. Some interactions between three variables, or perhaps even more may be present. The following interactions seemed to be significant ones and seem to indicate that a higher voltage would give much better results: 1) Shield height/Voltage; 2) Dose rate/Voltage; 3) Dose/Voltage; 4) Distance of sample from radiation source/Shield height; 5) Solution depth/Shield material; 6) Slurry depth/Voltage.

"X-rays perform photo-disintegration, and the electrons furnish the energy and amperage to the reaction. It is suspected that because the escaping electrons have a certain amount of energy, a certain amount of x-rays will be produced in the material by the electrons' reactions (Compton Effect). The ideal reaction, it is indicated, is for the x-ray to be produced at a target located somewhere outside the accelerator tube where losses of energy would be minimal. This reaction is dependent on the following factors:

"1) The isomers of the isotopes reacted upon must be present in the ore before the ore will react to the reaction; 2) These reactions are dependent upon the type target in order to control the frequency of the quantum energy level; 3) High-energy electrons must be present in the ore as well as x-rays; 4) The composition of the environmental solution furnishes other particles that are freed by the action of the resonant frequency of the x-rays and the electrons produced by the particle accelerator; 5) The reaction is a dose-rate reaction and not dependent upon velocity. The velocity of the original particles will determine the depth and time of the reaction only. Over-radiation gives a deterioration rate and loss of values reported...

"As the size of the sample varies, the reaction varies on an inverse lineal level wherein doubling the size of the sample would cut the total reaction in half."

Radiation dosages of 0.16, 0.5, and 2.0 Megarads/minute gave peaks on the dosage curve. Four Megarads/minute gives the highest yield. Irradiation lasted one minute. The reaction also is wattage-dependent. The minimum wattage required is 200 watt-seconds per gram of ore:

"The process has to be adjusted to the characteristics of different ores. The chemical formulas and the resonant energy levels must be established for each ore."

Consistency was achieved in 1970 by adding to the process a control resonant chamber (Magnetic Undulator) which acts to bring all variables into phase, or into a resonant relationship, with the radiation source, to a point where a consistency was obtained higher than any obtained prior to that time. There are definite peaks at which each ore that is of value with this process, releases the metals found within it. There are peaks for each metal ion within the ore.

The Magnetic Undulator establishes non-propagating, resonant standing waves with the x-ray diffraction wavelength of gold (2.042 Angstroms) in the environmental solution. The chemicals (in copper pans) were bombarded from above. Each bombardment increased the amount of gold 9-fold, but the yield later diminished to only three times the original amount. Consistently high, stable yields were obtained by first irradiating the trays from below and then applying x-rays from overhead. The yields increased 9-fold and remained at that level without deteriorating. The process as developed produces little increase in platinum values, probably due to: a) the energy level of the irradiation source; b) the chemical composition of the environmental solution; c) target type. The silver produced in this process assayed as high as 426 oz/ton. According to the report, the following conditions also apply:

"The reaction is sensitive to interference from nearly every material other than glass or porcelain. Plastics cannot be used, nor stainless steel, and most varieties of rubber or brass. Copper can be used if it is in one continuous piece. Indications are that interference is due to electrostatic charge or particle position in the solution."

Better results also would be obtained with suction pumping of the slurry in an all-glass system, rather than the makeshift conveyer belt/copper pan system used by MRI.

(2)    Dunikovski ~

In 1931, a Polish engineer named Dunikovski announced that he could produce artificial gold by the action of "Z-rays" on a mixture of silica and feldspar melted in bronze crucibles under the influence of 110 kilovolts. Dunikovski claimed to have perfected a process he inherited from his father and grandfather who had developed it. Dunikovski theorized that all minerals contain "embryonal atoms" or "mineralites" that can be artificially matured in minutes.

Several French investors syndicated and subscribed 2,000,000 francs which Dunikovski used to build a laboratory in Paris. But no gold was produced, and he was charged with fraud. He demonstrated his process to the court, but the results were ambiguous and insufficient to prove his innocence. Dunikovski was sentenced to four years imprisonment, but his attorney secured his release after two years. Dunikovski relocated to San Remo and renewed his experiments. He improved the process, gaining significant increases in yields.

His attorney (Jean Legrand) visited Dunikovski with the eminent chemist Albert Bonn to investigate the new situation. M. Bonn witnessed and replicated the process. One type of sand, which contained 11 grams Au/ton before treatment, assayed 859 grams/ton after treatment with the improved apparatus.

Dunikovski later established "Metallex, Societe Anonyme" with Belgian stockholders and established a factory on Lake Neuchatel. Nothing more is known about the affair because all subsequent proceeding were kept secret. (4)

(3)    Adalbert Klobasa ~

About 1937, an Austrian chemist named Adalbert Klobasa claimed to have produced gold using an electromagnet and induction coil with which he treated a mixture of titanium-potassium-oxalate (36 gr), ferrous sulfate (84 gr), copper sulfate (50 gr), sodium sulfide (50 gr), ammonium chloride (100 gr), ammonia (250 ml), sodium silicate (20 cc) and silica (440 gr). The reaction was catalyzed with 100 mg of silver. Two hours of treatment afforded a 1% yield of gold which appeared as brown-red scales. Klobasa claimed that gold is built up from iron, titanium, and sodium. He declined to enter into business with his synthesis:

" I am too old, and not fit enough to worry myself chasing around after capitalists."(4)

(4)    David Hudson ~

In the 1980s, David R. Hudson discovered the existence of ORMEs (Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements), which are virtually undetectable by conventional means (except for a distinguishing IR doublet located between about 1400 and 1600 cm-1) because they lack a d-orbital electron. Hudson and associates developed a method to recover ORMEs and convert them into their metallic forms. While it is not a transmutation of one element into another (but rather, the conversion of an allotrope into the common visible form of the elements), the extraction and conversion of ORMEs to metal may explain the claims of some other experimenters. Certain ores, particularly sodic and calcidic plagioclase, contain large amounts of ORMEs which can be extracted by Hudson's process, as described in his British Patent # 2,219,995 for "Non-Metallic, Monoatomic Forms of Transitional Elements" (Dec. 28, 1989):

"300 gr of dried material assayed by conventional techniques to show no gold present, ground to less than 200 mesh, is placed in a 1-gallon vessel, fitted with electrodes, with 120 gr NaCl, 10 gr KBr, and 2 liters of tap water.

"The anode consists of a pair of 3/8" x 12" carbon welding rods wrapped together with No.10 copper wire. The cathode consists of 1-5/8" ID x 14" glass tube with a medium porosity glass frit with a 1" x 14" x 1/16" stainless steel strip inside in a solution of 36 gr/liter NaCl (approx. 500 ml). Both electrodes are placed into the sample vessel and supported by clamps extending about 5" into the sample solution.

"The sample is placed on a roller table at approx. 10 rpm. The electrodes are connected to a (120 V) power supply in conjunction with a 2-3 amp 400-600 PIV rectifier. A 100 W light bulb and the electrodes are hooked in series. The rectifier load is connected to the anode since the rectifier filters out all negative voltage and only passes positive voltage.

"The sample is kept under load for a period of 6-1/2 hours. The final pH is in the range of 3-6.5. The voltage across the electrode is 5 volts. After disconnecting the load, the sample was allowed to settle and the solution over the settled out material was removed by decantation...

"800 ml of the sample was placed in a 1000 ml beaker and 20 ml concentrated sulfuric acid was added to the solution. With stirring, the solution was boiled down slowly on a hotplate until the solution was just dry (not baked). The just dry salt contains sodium gold chloride. The just dry salt was taken up in 400 ml deionized water and again boiled down to the just dry condition. There should be no discoloration at this point, i.e., a clear solution is formed.

"The just dry salt was then taken up in 400 ml 6M HCl, and thereafter boiled down to the just dry condition. The dilution and boiling down step was repeated four times, alternating with deionized water and a 6M HCl wash, with the sequence controlled to that the last washing was with 6M HCl. The purpose is to remove all traces of hypochlorite oxidant.

"The just dry salts are taken up in 400 ml anhydrous ethanol and stirred for approximately 10 minutes. This step is to dissolve the gold chloride salt, to remove the sodium chloride. After stirring, the slurry was filtered through #42 paper on a Buchner funnel.

"5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was slowly added to the filtrate, mixed, and the filtrate was then allowed to sit for approximately 1 hour. The filtrate was filtered through #42 paper on a Buchner funnel, hand then passed through a filter of 0.5 micron Teflon. The sulfuric acid precipitates out any calcium. Filtration removes the precipitant and a light yellow filtrate is recovered, with all traces of calcium sulfate removed.

"The light yellow solution was again boiled down to just dry, taking care to avoid any charring. At this point there should be no further evaporation of ethanol and the just dry residue should be free of color. The residue should have a sweet smell similar to burnt sugar. The occurrence of the sweet smell indicates the end point of the boil-down.

"The just dry residue is taken up in 600 ml deionized water to provide a water-soluble gold form which is the gold auride. If desired, the G-ORME can be recovered at this stage or converted into metallic gold. For gold recovery, the solution is put into a 1000 ml beaker and an electrolysis unit was set up... The anode is a gold electrode, 2 cm2 in size, upon which gold solution will plate out. The cathode comprises a 6.8 cm2 platinum electrode contained in a Nafion 117 chamber... Inside the Nafion chamber is 200 ml of electrolyte solution containing 5 ml sulfuric acid per 600 ml of electrolyte solution. It is important to keep the Nafion chamber wet at all times. The potential was measured across the electrodes and then an additional -2.2 volts potential was applied and maintained for a period of 2 hours.

"After the two hours, the potential was raised to 3.0 volts and maintained for approximately 18 hours. Bubbles formed on both the gold and platinum electrodes. A black material formed on the gold electrode after 3-4 hours. The gold electrode was removed from solution while voltage was still being applied. The electrode was dried in a vacuum oven overnight at 115o C. The electrode was weighed before and after the plating to determine the amount of gold collected.

"The metallic gold is, therefore, produced from a naturally occurring ore which, when subjected to conventional assaying, does not test positive for gold."

The ORMEs are produced from sodium gold chloride, which is reduced to sodium auride:

"Continued aquation results in dissociation of the gold atom from the sodium and the eventual formation of a protonated auride of gold as a grey precipitate. Subsequent annealing produces the Gold-ORME. The G-ORME has an electron arrangement whereby it acquires d-orbital hole or holes which share energy with an electron or electrons. This pairing occurs under the influence of a magnetic field external to the field of the electron.

"G-ORMEs are stable [as] demonstrated by unique thermal and chemical properties. The white salt-like material that is formed when G-ORMES are treated with fuming HClO4 or fuming H2SO4 are dissimilar from the transition (T) metal or its salts. The G-ORME will not react with cyanide, will not be dissolved by aqua regia, and will not wet or amalgamate with mercury... The G-ORMEs remain as a powder at 1200oC...

"G-ORMEs can be reconverted to metallic gold from which they were formed. This reconversion is accomplished by an oxidative rearrangement which removes all paired valence electrons together with their vacancy pair electrons, with a subsequent refilling of the d and s orbitals with unpaired electrons until the proper configuration is reached for the T-metal.

"This oxidative rearrangement is effected by subjecting the G-ORME to a large negative potential in the presence of an electron-donating element, such as carbon, thus forming a metallic element-carbon chemical bond. For that metal-carbon bond to occur the carbon must provide for the horizontal removal of the d orbital vacancy of the ORME. The carbon acts as a chemical fulcrum. When the element-carbon bond is reduced by way of further decreasing the potential, the carbon receives a reducing electron and subsequently vertically inserts that reducing electron below the s orbitals of the element, thus forming metallic gold.

"The above description for the preparation of G-ORME from commercially available metallic gold is applicable equally for the preparation of the remaining ORMEs, except for the specific potential energy required and the use of nascent nitrogen rather than carbon to convert the other ORMEs to their constituent metallic forms. The specific energies range between -1.8 V and -2.5 V depending on the particular element. Alternatively this arrangement can be achieved chemically by reacting NO gas with the T-metal ORMEs other than gold. Nitric oxide is unique in that it possesses the necessary chemical potential as well as the single unpaired electron."

(5)    Joe Champion ~

In the 1990s, Joe Champion announced a variety of methods of transmutations of black sands by thermal burns, melts and kinetic methods. He was convicted of fraud in Arizona after being accused by an irate investor who failed to achieve satisfactory results. Other researchers (including the physicists Bockris and Sundaresan, 1994) validated his processes, however, so the question remains open for experiment.

The process was developed from a method of "growing gold" in an electrolytic cell that was originally developed by Dr. Walter Lussage, a Czechoslovakian geologist (d. 1977). Dr. Lussage revealed his process to Mr. Jack Keller, who taught it to Joe Champion in 1989. Champion subsequently developed the method further.

The original formula is quite simple: black sand (90 gr), charcoal (90 gr), and sodium nitrate (270 gr), pulverized to 200 mesh and mixed thoroughly. The reagents must be pulverized separately to avoid ignition. The mixture is ignited with a torch; it burns about 90 seconds, reaching a temperature of about 700o C. In one assay, the mixture contained 0.18 mg Au and 1.35 mg Ag before ignition; after ignition it contained 212.7 mg Au and 856.8 mg Ag.

Black sand typically is composed of 40% magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), or chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). The necessary parental isotopes (cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel, and calcium) must be present, according to the formula:

Co59 + Ca40-44 = Ag99-103
Ni60-64 + Ca44 = Cd104-108

The addition of a molar proportion of lead enabled the atoms of gold to be collected as they formed, and served as an absorptive shield for radioactivity released in the reaction.

Another formula for the thermal burn process was carbon (300 gr), potassium nitrate (900 gr), sulfur (80 gr), silica (120 gr), ferrous sulfate (100 gr), cadmium (30 gr), mercury chloride (100 gr), lead oxide (50 gr), silver (5 gr), and calcium oxide (30 gr).

In one test that Champion described, the thermal melt process was accomplished in a gas-fired or inductively heated furnace, vented to release gases liberated in the process. A mixture of black sands (1 kg), mineral coal (1 kg), sodium nitrate (3 kg), lead (300 gr), silver (200 gr), and mercury chloride (HgCl2, 1 kg) in a graphite crucible yielded 44 gr gold, 6 gr platinum, and 35 gr rhodium.

Another gas-fired mixture tested by Champion was composed of black sands (100 gr), charcoal (300 gr), sodium nitrate (900 gr) and powered silver (500 gr). When an inductive furnace was employed, the formula needed to be modified: black sands (100 gr), charcoal (350 gr), sodium nitrate (150 gr), silver (50 gr), and copper powder (50 gr).

The gas or electricity was reduced during the ignition period. After the ignition was completed, the temperature was raised to 2000o C for 90 minutes. If necessary, borax or potassium nitrate was added to maintain fluidity of the mixture. When there was no more apparent reaction, the mixture was poured into a mold to cool, and the slag removed. Both the reaction mixture and the slag should be assayed.

Another method was discovered in 1993, utilizing the kinetic energy of a ball mill with 40 kg of carbon steel balls. The liner must be made of iron-coated steel and the reagents must be thoroughly dry for this method to work properly. The ball mill also must have an airtight seal. 24% of the mineral weight should be ferric oxygen, which is required for the kinetic excitation transmutation to occur.

One of Champion's research associates, Greg Iseman (Mesa AZ), used a microwave digestion process to perform analyses of the formula; this method also produced transmutations.

"If the reaction mixture exceeds 15 kg, the yield is reduced because the transmutation cycle is too long and begins to produce base elements instead of precious metals. It was found necessary to add traces of the target elements to the starting mixture in order for the resonance of those elements (i.e., Au) to act as a "stopping agent".

Champion also noted:

"The following reagents were required to produce synthetic precious metals by this process: silica, ferrous sulfate, lead oxide, calcium oxide, mercury sulfide, and cadmium. The mixture was combined with carbon, sodium or potassium nitrate, sulfur, mercury chloride, and silver. The formula produced synthetic gold, iridium, platinum, palladium, and rhodium...

"When the chemical mixture is properly prepared, it has a reproductive factor of over 60%. This was later increased to 90-plus percent when an error was determined in the crystalline structure of the ferrous sulfate. The differences dealt with a magnetic susceptibility at high temperature, i.e., greater than 750o C...

"The coincidence factor is extremely important in determining the effectiveness of any nuclear occurrence... The following parameters must be weighed:

1. Natural occurrence (%) of parental isotopes; 2. Percent relationship of parental isotopes to total mass; 3. Composition of total mass; 4. Thermal nuclear cross section of parental isotopes; 5. Magnetic susceptibility of nuclear moment; 6. Type and length of energy excitation; 7. Parental isotopes' complacency with additives...

"The coincidence factor is also related to the "treeing effect": it is a nuclear reaction, such as caused by low energy transmutation situations, where a parental element has multiple isotopes, but when combined with 10 a and (10 a  + a o), produce more daughter isotopes than parents. If charted, this would resemble limbs on a tree... "


(6)    References ~

1.   American Business (April 1980), p. 16.
2.   Champion, Joe: Producing Precious Metals at Home; 1994, Discover Publishing P.O. Box 67, Westboro WI 54490); see also Bockris, J.: Fusion Technology 26: 261, 266 (1994)
3.   Conrad, Arnold: California Mining Journal (February 1973), p. 13.
4.   Doberer, K.K.: The Goldmakers; 1948, Nicholson & Watson, London.
5.   Dolph, T.R.: Fate 29(2), #311 (February 1976).
6.   Garretson, Fred: Oakland Tribune (Sat., 22 March 1980), p. A-7.
7.   Hendricks, Ruth L.: "Affadavit" (5 November 1975).
8.   Melchanov, Andrew: Chicago Elite (January 1980).
9.   Moray, T. H.:I. "Recovery of Minerals from Low-Grade Ore by High Energy Bombardment"; (68th National Western Mining Conf. (Denver, CO; 4 February 1965); II. Hooper, W.J.: "Startling Possibilities in Artificial Transmutation", p. 5-7; III. Hendricks, Ruth L.: "History of Research Project", p. 8-9; IV. Rudolph, Th. E.: "Statistical Evaluation Research Report", p. 10-12.
10.  Olsen, Prof. L. M.: Financial & Statistical Evaluation: "Recovery of Minerals from Low-Grade Ore by High-Energy Bombardment".
11.  Sherr, R., et al.: Physical Review 60 (7): 473-479 (October 1941).
12.  Star (12 February 1980).





Adept Alchemy

Part II

Modern Arcana

Chapter 3

Transmutation of Carbon


(1)    G. Ohsawa & M. Kushi
(2)    M. Jovitschitsch
(4)    J. B. Hannay
(5)    S. Brown
(6)    References

    Nuclear physicists bombard targets with high-energy particles in order (or chaos) to prove the schematic of their mindset with appropriate experimental results. In recent years, however, the discovery of cold fusion has quite upset the world view of conventional physicists, who generally deny the possibility that Nature allows for other means of transmutation. Yet, there is considerable historical evidence that many types of transmutations have been accomplished without particle accelerators, long before Pons and Fleischman announced their discovery of cold fusion. There is so much credible documentation of low-energy transmutation that, in the words of Rupert Gould, "did it relate to any more probable event, we should be compelled either to accept it or cease putting any faith in recorded testimony."

    Among the many examples that can be cited, "biological transmutation" is the best developed and well known. About forty years ago, Dr. Louis Kervran presented the idea that sodium, potassium, and dozens of other elements change into each other under certain natural conditions in the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms. Biological transmutations have been demonstrated, crucial experiments replicated, and the theoretical principles verified by many scientists who are finding new industrial, medical and agricultural applications of the discoveries.

(1)    George Ohsawa & Michio Kushi

    Inspired by the pioneering work of Dr. Kervran, Dr. George Ohsawa sought to transmute sodium into potassium in vitro. The method revealed itself to him in a symbolic dream. Thus inspired, Dr. Ohsawa and Michio Kushi, et al., constructed an experimental electric discharge tube with copper (Yin) and iron (Yang) electrodes and a valve through which to draw a vacuum or admit oxygen (Fig. 3.1). The first transmutation with this equipment was achieved on June 21, 1964. After applying 60 watts of electricity for 30 minutes to heat sodium to a plasma, a molar equivalent of oxygen was introduced. Viewed with a spectroscope, the orange band of sodium gave way to the blue of potassium, according to the formula:

Na23 + O16 = K39

    Analysis of the reaction product confirmed the result and revealed an unexpected extra: a trace of gold was produced by the combination of Na, O, and K with the Cu and Fe electrodes. Several different metals were tested as electrode materials. Neon and argon atmospheres were found to enhance the yield of potassium and other elements. External heating of the reaction tube also served to ionize the sodium.

    Dr. Louis Kervran noted these experiments in his book Transmutations A Faible Energie:

    "Professor [Masashiro] Torii, on a circuit designed by Prof. Sakurazawa, and under the control of Prof. Odagiri, observed in the spectroscope the passage of sodium to potassium upon the adjunction of a small quantity of oxygen to sodium vapor...

    "Prof. Torii [of Musashino Institute of Technology, Tokyo] has informed me of having observed on 21 June 1963, in the spectroscope, the passage of sodium to potassium, the disappearance of the yellow line of sodium being replaced by the red-violet ray of 7699 Ao potassium; the experiment was repeated June 22 before five scientists...

    "In the production of steel in electric furnaces, the incomprehensible appearance of boron [has been observed]. We see now that we cannot exclude, under the effect of a powerful electric field and of the high temperature of these furnaces, the 'reduction' of carbon from the loss of hydrogen and in keeping with: C - H = B...

    "The experience is simple to realize, as it suffices to take a plate of steel --- or of iron -- an anode of magnesium, place them in a jar containing distilled water rendered conductive by a salt of magnesium --- in order not to introduce any metallic ion other than magnesium, and these two electrodes are reunited by a metal wire, to the exterior of the jar; thus they realize (in part) a battery with magnesium at the negative, iron as positive; through the production of hydrogen at the electrode, magnesium is at a potential of 1.9 volts more negative than iron. Leave it for two or three months; from time to time add a little distilled water in order to compensate for evaporation. On analysis, calcium is obtained... in an operation in which calcium was not introduced!"

    The calcium (as oxide) accumulates in scales on the cathode.

    Kushi and Ohsawa, et al., proceeded to develop their process for industrial-scale production. They estimated that potassium could be manufactured for 1% of the current price. In a correspondence to Ken Jones (12 October 1980), Michio Kushi stated:

    "After George Ohsawa and myself succeeded in producing K out of Na and O... we presented the experiment to several chemical corporations. At that time, Pfizer International became most actively interested. We had conferences on several occasions; however, soon after we decided not to become involved with these corporations, as a result of the considerations of the vast effects this would have on the industry."

    The researchers also had no patent with which to protect their interests. Ohsawa and Kushi then turned their attention to the manufacture of steel by transmutation of carbon and oxygen according to the formula:

2 (C12 + O16) = 2 Si28 = Ni56 = Fe56

    The experimental arrangements worked as predicted, and produced several other elements from combinations of C and O with atmospheric nitrogen, etc:

    "The Fe produced by this transmutation is stainless; it does not rust easily. Also it reacts much less to heat than does ordinary Fe... All results of the transmutation for Fe have been carefully examined and analyzed by several methods, as: (1) magnetic inspection, (2) spectroscopic analysis, (3) chemical analysis, (4) examination by reagents, etc, and confirmed by authoritative testing agencies.

    "The new form of iron was called GOS (George Ohsawa Steel). The experimental method is as follows:

    "Method 1: Transmutation in Air [Fig. 3.2] --- Two graphite crucibles (approx 2.5" x 5") cover each other top and bottom. The upper crucible has a 10 mm Hole, surrounded by a ceramic ring, which acts as an insulator. Into this hole a carbon rod (0.25" diam) is inserted until it reaches the 2 or 3 grams of carbon powder placed at the bottom of the lower crucible, which has one or two small holes at the lower part of its side wall for circulation of air. An iron base placed under the lower crucible acts as another electric pole. As the carbon rod approaches the powder, the electric arc arises. Continuing the operation for 20 to 30 minutes, the carbon powder changes to iron. In this experiment, the applied electricity is about 35 to 50 volts/8 to 18 amps, either AC or DC.

    "Method 2: Transmutation in Water --- Using two carbon rods (0.25" diam.), create an electric arc between them, striking them on one another in water. This operation is performed for 1 to 5 seconds. Then, brown-black metallic powder (which contains iron) falls down to the bottom of the water.

    "Method 3: Transmutation in Air --- Carbon powder is placed on a copper plate, approximately 12" long, 6" wide, and 0.5" thick. This plate works as an electrical ground. A carbon rod (0.25" diam.) used as the other electrical pole, is struck repeatedly to the carbon powder on the plate, producing an electric arc. The carbon powder changes into iron.

    "During the process of this transmutation, nickel is temporarily produced as a short-lived radioactive isotope. The degree of transmutation from C and O is approximately 5% to 20% immediately, with a larger percent of transmutation occurring gradually in the air, which has the effect of cooling the metallic powder to below room temperature."

    In another experimental configuration (Fig. 3.3), the reaction was cooled by dry ice. When sparked with carbon rods, the CO2 vapors also yielded iron, etc.

    In 1994, R. Sundaresan and J.Bockris (Texas A&M) reported that they had observed "Anomalous Reactions During Arcing Between Carbon Rods In Water:

    "Spectroscopically pure carbon rods were subjected to a carbon arc in highly purified water. The arc current varied from 20 to 25 A and was passed intermittently for several hours. The original carbon contained ~ 2 ppm Fe. The C rods remained cool to the touch at >2 cm from their tips. Adsorption of iron from water or the surrounding atmosphere was established as not being the cause of the increase of iron. There is a weak correlation between the iron formed and the time of passage of current.

    "When dissolved O2 was replaced by N2 in the solution, no iron was formed. Hence, the mechanism

2 6C12 + 2 8O18Þ26Fe56 + 2He4

was suggested as the origin of the iron. The increase in temperature of the solution was consistent with expectation based on this reaction."

    Also in 1994, another group of researchers (M. Singh, et al.) at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (Bombay) reported their "Verification of the G. Ohsawa Experiment for Anomalous Production of Iron from Carbon Arc in Water:

    "A direct current arc was run between ultrapure graphite electrodes dipped in ultrapure water for 1-20 hours. The graphite residue collected at the bottom of the water trough was analyzed for Fe content by a conventional spectrographic method... The Fe content was fairly high, depending on the duration of the arcing... The results showed large variations in Fe content (50 to 2000 ppm) in the C residue. In the second series of experiments... with the water trough fully covered, the amount of Fe in the carbon residue decreased significantly (20-100 ppm). Here also there were large variations in the iron concentration in the residue, although the experiments were performed under identical conditions. Whether Fe is really being synthesized through transmutation from C and O as suggested by George Ohsawa or is getting concentrated to different degrees through some other phenomenon is not currently clear. The Fe in the C residue was also analyzed by mass spectroscopy for the abundance of various isotopes... Besides Fe, the presence of other elements like Si, Ni, Al, and Cr was also determined in the C residue, and it was found that the variation of their concentrations followed the same pattern as that of Fe."

    In 1996, Kenjin Sasaki reported his successful experimental replication of the carbon arc production of iron. He used a 99.9999% pure graphite crucible and rod with a 100V/10A electric welder. The crucible was cooled. The arc (8-10A) struck high-purity carbon powder 4 times for 1 minute each time. The yield of iron was recovered with a magnet. Further experiments conducted by C. Akbar (Kushi Research Institute) "indicate that voltage potential and current density are important in the formation of iron in chemically pure carbon."

    Toby Grotz also conducted this experiment and reported the results in detail in 1996. He tested activated charcoal, activated carbon, and coal. No iron was produced from charcoal, but activated carbon did yield magnetic material. Tests were performed with copper and aluminum plates and rods to eliminate the possibility that the carbon rod and copper plate might be releasing iron:

    "This amount [0.22 gr] of iron is an order of magnitude less than that which occurs naturally in the sample... The excess weight appears to be due to magnetic material that is part of or encased in particles of carbon... There is a point at which no more magnetic material may be removed from the sample using the arc discharge process. It is proposed here that the high current density of the arc discharge magnetizes magnetic material that exists within the particles of the activated carbon. This then allows separation of the magnetic material from the sample using a magnet..."

    J. Bockris and associates replicated the experiment using the underwater arcing method, and found only microgram amounts of iron after 24 hours. When the experiment was repeated with the reaction vessel covered to exclude air, no iron was found.

    Those results suggest that at least some of the reported yields of iron might be due to the arc coagulating ORMEs (Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements) existing in the Earth's atmosphere. ORMEs are virtually undetectable by all conventional methods except infrared analysis, which can distinguish a certain characteristic doublet. As David Hudson discovered in the 1980s, ORMEs can be converted to metallic form by certain processes involving carbon or nitrogen, which are used to insert an electron in the d orbital shell of the atoms. The complete process is described in his Australian patent.

    Dr. Joseph McKibben has published his suggestion that the transmutative production of iron from carbon may be due to what he calls a subquark particle, which has a mass of about 1.15 nucleons:

    "The subquark, when attached the 4He seemed to me to be an ideal candidate for an ideal catalytic agent."

    In the 1980s, Michio Kushi resumed his experiments with the "aim of finding methods of mass production":

    "At that time I shall be able to consider how to present to the world the transmutation of the atom using the principles of Yin and Yang for the future world industry.

    "The transmutation of the atom can be achieved if elements are changed into the state of plasma, and if these elements are well understood in their antagonistic and complementary relations to other elements, according to the principles of Yin and Yang.

    "The atomic number, mass, density, and gravity, physical reaction to temperature such as melting and boiling points, chemical reactions to other elements, reactions to specific environmental factors, such as ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths applied to the elements, as well as spectroscopic color analysis --- all of these characteristics of the atom can contribute to classify the atom into the Yin group or Yang group...

    "Nothing is solely Yin or Yang: everything involves polarity. There is nothing neuter. Either Yin or Yang is in excess in every occurrence. Large Yin attracts small Yin; larger Yang attracts small Yang. At extremes, Yin produces Yang, and Yang produces Yin. All physical forms and objects are Yang at the center and Yin at the surface."

    "Hydrogen, the center of the atomic spiral, is Yang. It gathers particles to itself, forming the first octave of creation. The conditions become apparent upon studying the melting and boiling points of the first eight elements.

    "Within the first octave, the greatest attraction is between carbon and oxygen, which represent Yin and Yang respectively. It is the fugate interaction of these two that form the other elements. Carbon is often replaced by boron. In terms of Yin and Yang, these are like brothers in that they react in similar ways in forming new elements."

    Since George Ohsawa and Michio Kushi conducted their initial experiments in the 1970s, several other researchers have reported the same results and more, thanks to modern analytical equipment, computers, and communication. The worlds of low-energy transmutations have become much more accessible to us. New discoveries are being reported at an increasing rate in the scientific literature, particularly cold fusion and biological transmutations. Perhaps within a few decades we shall see the mass production of elements on demand. (1, 7, 10-18, 22, 23)

The Fugate of Carbon
1 (C + O) = Si                                                                         5 (C + O) = Ce
2 (C + O) = Fe                                                                        6 (C + O) = Er
3 (C + O) = Kr                                                                        7 (C + O) = Pt
4 (C + O) = Cd                                                       After Pt the elements become increasingly Yin
Classification       Yin                         Yang

Tendency               Expansion               Contraction
Position                  Outward                 Inward
Structure                Space                     Time
Color                     Purple                     Red
Temperature          Cold                        Hot
Weight                   Light                        Heavy
Catalyst                 Water                      Fire
Atomic                  Electron                   Proton
Elements                K, O, P, Ca, N       H, As, Cl, Na, C

(2)    Milorad Jovitschitsch

    In 1908, Milorad Z. Jovivitsch (Bergau-Akademie in Belgrad) published two unique articles in the journal Monatschrift fur Chemie, describing "The Mysterious Deficiency of Carbon in the Condensation Products from Ethylene and Acetylene."

    Jovivitsch had been experimenting with electrical discharges in these gases, following the methods used by Berthelot.The latter had shown that the action of a silent electric discharge upon saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons will split off hydrogen and produce condensation products. (4, 6, 12)

    Jovivitsch introduced pure dry ethylene or acetylene and oxygen into an ozonizer containing copper oxide, and electrified the mixture with 100 volts/3 amps for 3 days and 2 nights. His analysis of the resulting compounds showed a deficiency in the theoretical amount of carbon and hydrogen, and an excess of oxygen. Several determinations of the carbon and hydrogen taken together indicated a 7% deficiency in the ethylene reaction product, and a 22% deficiency in the case of acetylene.

    Berthelot had accounted for these losses by attributing them to oxygen absorption from the atmosphere. Jovivitsch excluded that possibility by employing pure gases, and he immediately preserved the products in hermetically sealed tubes. There was practically no possibility of absorbing any significant amount of atmospheric oxygen. He also determined that the condensed ethylene loses no carbon on exposure to air, and that the condensed acetylene remains unchanged after many weeks. Comparative analysis of the reaction products preserved in tubes and those exposed to air showed them to be in close agreement.

    Jovivitsch attempted to explain the scientific riddle of this chemical anomaly by attributing it either to experimental error or the transformation of elements. Because he took great care and made very precise analyses, Jovivitsch was convinced that a transmutation had occurred. His opinion was reinforced by the fact that the condensation products were radioactive.

(3)    M. E. De Boismenu

    In 1913, the French engineer M.E. De Boismenu, the director of an electric carbide furnace plant in Paris, announced the issuance of his patent for a very easy new method to produce artificial diamonds in an electric furnace. The largest specimens produced at that time was 2-1/2 millimeters in diameter; it was "cut with 32 facets with remarkable dexterity."

    The furnace was built of refractory brick and had two carbon electrodes (6-1/2" diam.), one of which could be adjusted manually. The bed was packed with a mixture of powdered lime and carbon; this was found to be the best way to support a trough, made of fused calcium carbide (CaC), in which the carbon electrodes operated. The trough was filled with 8 lb of CaC fragments and melted (34 V/800 A /6 hr). More CaC was piled on the trough, and the whole was covered with more of the lime-carbon mixture, and finally with refractory bricks. The furnace was run for another 12 hours. The negative pole became covered with a black carbonaceous deposit weighing about 700 gr. The mass was soaked in water and the diamonds were picked out; their size varied from 1/2 to 2-1/2 mm diameter. The last reported run of the furnace (12 hr @ 700-800 A/24-25 V) produced over a dozen diamonds, some as large as 1/10 inch diameter. They were indistinguishable from natural diamonds. (21)

    A similar method was developed by Felix Sebba, a chemical engineer at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University (Blacksburg, VA). He improved on the technique developed by Charles V. Burton in 1905 (C dissolved in molten Pb-Ca, then cooled). Sebba dissolved calcium carbide in molten lead. Steam at 550o C was passed over the melt and reacted with the Ca (but not the Pb), forming calcium hydroxide which forms a slag on the surface. Some of the carbon crystallizes as diamonds.Although these methods are not transmutations, they certainly are most interesting allotropisms. (5, 19)

    Lea Potts was featured in Life magazine (March 1993) for his production of diamonds with a blowtorch.

(4)    J. B. Hannay

    In 1880, J.B. Hannay of Glasgow made diamonds from Dippel's Oil, catalyzed bylithium metal in thick iron tubes at red heat. The minute yield (14 mg) of Type B blue diamonds exhibited all the characteristics and properties of natural diamonds. Hannay was attempting to produce nascent carbon. He found that when carbon is liberated from a nitrogenous hydrocarbon in the presence of Li, Na, Mg or K at red heat and high pressure, the metal hydride is formed, and the carbon reacts with (or is stabilized by) the nitrogen and assumes diamond form. No diamonds were found in experiments without N. (8, 9)

    Dippel's Oil is a nitrogenous by-product of the dry distillation manufacture of bone char. The principal N-ingredient is pyridine. The iron tubes were 20" x 4" o.d. x 1/2" i.d.. Most of them ruptured during the experiments.

    The largest yield was obtained from a mixture of "paraffin spirit boiling at 75o [a mixture of light paraffins], 90%, together with 10% of carefully rectified bone-oil [Dippel's Oil, bp 115-150o]; these were placed with metallic Li (4 gr) in an iron tube" (20" x 4" o.d. x 1/2" i.d.) which was heated to redness for 14 hours. The tubes usually exploded, or the vapors escaped through the porous iron, or combined with it. Only 4 experiments (out of 34) were successful.

    In his Bakerian Lecture for 1918, Sir Charles Parsons reported that he had repeated Hannay's experiments without success. He doubted that Hannay had made genuine diamonds. Bannister and Lonsdale, however, obtained samples of Hannay's diamonds from the British Museum; X-ray analysis showed they are genuine. (2, 3, 20)

    Hannay's approach to diamonds is interesting, but it is not feasible for industrial application.Several other methods of manufacturing diamonds have been developed since then, but none are so simple as the technique developed by De Boismenu.

(5)    Dr. Samuel Brown

    Dr. Samuel Brown presented a report to the Royal Society of Edinburg in May 1841 concerning his "Experimental Researches on the Producton of Silicon from Paracyanogen":

    "I venture to announce, as the result of my inquiries, that carbon and silicon are isomeric bodies, and that the former element may be converted into a substance presenting all the properties of the latter."

    Dr. Brown prepared paracyanogen and reacted it in various ways to yield residues of silica. The experiments were replicated by Dr George Wilson and John C. Brown in August 1843. Although they obtained residues of silica in several runs (8.4 gr in one test), it was probably a contaminant in the potassium ferrocyanide. They stated:

    "We tried the greater number of Dr Brown's processes, and rejected them one after another, without pursuing their investigation farther, on finding they would not yield quantitative proofs of the conversion of carbon into silicon... In conclusion we need scarcely say, that we have been unable to supply any proof of the transmutability of carbon into silicon."

    Prof Liebig also reported negative results:

    "We have repeated all the experiments of Dr Brown on the production of silicon from paracyanogen, but we have not been able to confirm one of his results. What our experiments prove is, that paracyanogen is decomposed by a strong heat into nitrogen gas, and a residue of charcoal, which is exceedingly difficult of combustion." (24)

(6)    References

1. Anonymous: The Order of the Universe 3 (10): 12, 14-17.

2. Bannister, F.A., & Lonsdale, K.: Nature 151 (#3829): 334-335 (20 March 1943); "Lab. Synth..."

3. Bannister, F.A., & Lonsdale, K.: Mineralogical Mag. 26: 315-325 (1941-43); "An X-Ray Study..."

4. Berthelot: Ber. d. Deutschen Ges. 15: 988 (1882).

5. Burton, Charles V.: Nature 72 (#1869): 1 (24 August 1905); "Artificial Diamonds"

6. Chemical Abstracts 2 (1): 1410 (20 May 1908).

7. Gardiner, Bruce: East-West Journal (February 1975), p. 15.

8. Hannay, J.B.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 30: 461 (1880); ibid., 32: 407 (1881)

9. Hannay, J.B.: Chemical News 86: 173 (1902)

10. Grotz, T.: Fulcrum 4 (3):6-10 (Oct., 1996).

11. Harris, P.M.: Unpublished lab notes (March 1965).

12. Jovivitsch, Milorad Z.: Monatschrift f. Chemie 29: 1-4, 5-14 (1908).

13. Kervran, Louis: Transmutations A Faible Energie; 1964, Libr. Maloine, Paris; ibid., Preuves Relatives A l'Existence de Transmutations Biologiques (1968); ibid., Transmutations Biologiques en Agronomie (1970); ibid., Biological Transmutations; 1972, Swan House, NY, &c...

14. Kushi, Michio: East-West Journal (February 1975), pp. 22-26.

15. Kushi, Michio: Kushi Institute Study Guide # 10: "Atomic Transmutation".

16. Mallove, E.: Infinite Energy , March-April 1996 (#7).

17. McKibben, Joseph L.: Infinite Energy #11 (Nov.-Dec. 1996), p. 37

18. Ohmori, T. & Enyo, M.: J. New Energy 1(1):15-22 (1996).

19. Peterson, Ivars: Nature (3 August 1985), p. 75; "Diamonds in Nature"

20. Parsons, Sir Charles A.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 220-A: 67--93 (1918)

21. Scientific American (7 June 1913), p. 515; "A New Way of Making Diamonds"

22. Singh, M., et al.: Fusion Technology 26: 266 (Nov., 1994).

23. Sundaresan, R. & Bockris, J.: Fusion Technology 26: 261 (Nov., 1994).

24. Mackenzie, J.: Chemistry & Industry (22 Sept 1945), p.290-292; "The Sad Story of Dr S Brown..."

Figure II.3.1

The Ohsawa-Kushi Transmutation of Carbon



OHSAWA, George : Transmutation of C + O to Fe

~ www.rexresearch.com/ohsawa/ohsawa.htm Low energy transmutation: French Patent # 1427109.   

Supplements KUSHI / OHSAWA : Biological Transmutation

George ( Yikikazu ) OHSAWA 

Transmutation of C + O => Fe


Fabrication d'aciers spéciaux par transmutation à faible énergie

Classification:   - international:  C21C5/52; C21C5/00 - European:  C21C5/52G
Application number:  FR19640998735 19641214
Priority number(s):  FR19640998735 19641214





Adept Alchemy

Part II

Modern Arcana

Chapter 4

Decomposition of Tungsten to Helium


(1)    G. Wendt & C. Irion
(2)    References

(1)    Gerald Wendt & Clarence Irion

    Gerald L. Wendt and Clarence E. Irion (University of Chicago) reported their "Experimental Attempts to Decompose Tungsten at High Temperatures" to a meeting of the American Chemical Society in Illinois in April 1922. (4, 5)

    Wendt and Irion claimed to have completely disintegrated tungsten wire into helium by means of a high-voltage discharge in glass bulbs. In the mean of 21 experiments, 1.01 cc of helium was obtained from a wire length of 39.62 mm with a weight of 0.713 mg, exploded with 29.6 kilovolts. The procedure consisted of charging a condensor to 100 Kv and discharging it at high speed through an extremely fine wire. The resulting explosion generated a pressure of about 1,000 lb/in2 and a temperature over 50,000o F. The method introduced as much as a coulomb of electricity into the tungsten wire within 1/300,000th of a second. The accompanying flash of light was about 200 times as bright as sunlight, and lasted less than 1/100,000 of a second. No smoke or other residue was ever found after the explosions.

    Wendt and Irion described the electrical circuit and bulb (Fig. 4.1, 4.2) as follows:

    "The primary circuit of the transformer, T, operates on a 220-volt alternating current power line through an inductive resistance, E. In order to prevent a destructive back-pulse into the power line should the charged condenser accidentally be discharged through the secondary circuit of the transformer, 2 condensers of 1 microfarad capacity each are bridged across the primary circuit with a ground connection, as shown at A. The primary circuit was heavy enough to carry 40 amperes during the brief period necessary to charge the large condenser; the secondary circuit furnished 100,000 volts though ordinarily only some 30,000 were used. The secondary circuit was connected to the two sides of the large condenser, C, one side leading through the hot cathode 'kenotron' rectifier, R, which was especially designed for heavy service and a large factor of safety. Its cathode filament was heated by the battery of dry cells, B. The discharge circuit led from the two sides of the condenser and contained only the spark gap, S, and the wire to be exploded, H. This discharge circuit was made as short and compact as possible, of heavy copper strip, in order to reduce resistance and inductance to a minimum and thus allow a rapid and non-oscillating discharge through the wire in the minimum time, thus concentrating the energy input and giving the maximum temperature in the material to the wire. To give maximum capacity and hold maximum voltage the condenser was built of 100 glass plates 60 by 75 cm covered with heavy tin foil and cast into solid paraffin with a gap of 5 mm between plates. The condenser showed brushing at the edges of the plates at 30,000 volts but held 45,000 volts without puncturing. The capacity was about 0.1 microfarad. The spark gap consisted of two 2 cm brass spheres, their separation adjustable to the maximum voltage of the condenser. Its use is important since it is the only means for protecting the condenser from excessive charge by the transformer, and for insuring a complete and sharp discharge at the proper moment.

    "Tungsten was chosen for the material of the wire to be exploded chiefly because its high atomic weight made its decomposition probable on the hypothesis adopted, and also because it is hard enough to allow convenient manipulation and support even in excessively thin wires. The wires were 0.035 mm in diameter, about 4 cm long and weighed 0.5 to 0.7 mg. They had sufficient strength to be sprung into place between the larger electrodes shown in Fig. [4.2] without welding or clamping.

    "The construction of the explosion bulb is shown in Fig. [4.2]. It has a volume of about 300 cc, and was constructed of heavy Pyrex glass without strain and in good spherical form, for it was required to withstand momentarily a tremendous outward pressure. Thick bulbs invariably broke during the explosion because of insufficient elasticity. Thin bulbs may be used is the bulb is immersed in a vessel of water, which gives sufficient support together with elasticity. The large side-tube is the neck at which the bulb was sealed from the pump system after evacuation, and through which the wire was sprung into place between the electrodes by means of pincers. The smaller side tube contained a third sealed-in electrode, and served for the spectroscopic examination of the gas within, one of the electrodes being used for the other terminal of the exciting induction coil.

    "The three electrodes were constructed as is shown in detail in Fig. [4.2]. B was the electrode itself, made of... # 20 tungsten wire. This was firmly sealed directly through the Pyrex walls in the manner shown, for mechanical strength. The entire surface of the electrodes was first covered with a thick layer of Pyrex glass, A. The tip was then carefully ground off until the tungsten was exposed. Then a hole, C, was drilled in the end with a # 80 drill, 0.343 mm in diameter, the hole being less than 0.76 mm deep, to receive the fine wire for explosion. The electrodes were then sealed into the bulb. This method of sealing in the electrodes had the two purposes of excluding the chance of leakage of air inward through the seal after evacuation and of preventing the liberation of gas from these electrodes by the heating effect of the explosion itself. With such electrodes only the surfaces of the three small holes were exposed to the effects of the explosions, and one of these, in the spectroscopic capillary, was far removed from the scene of the explosion. In some of the early explosions brass electrodes were used welded to a tungsten wire sealed through the glass.

    "The bulb was vacuum-evacuated for 15 hours by a mechanical pump and two mercury-vapor diffusion pumps in series with a liquid-air trap to capture any mercury vapor. The bulb was supported in a furnace and heated to above 350o C to drive off any gases contained in the glass, and out-gassed coconut charcoal (immersed in liquid air) was employed inline to absorb gases just prior to sealing the bulb. In addition, about 0.2 amperes from a battery was passed through the electrodes and the filament to heat them above 2000o Cfor 15 hours to drive off any other absorbed gases. Bulbs prepared in this manner showed no spectrum, florescence, or conductance."

    After the wire was exploded, spectroscopic analysis of the gas revealed the strong yellow line of helium, and the faint green line of mercury. Other faint lines were detected but not identified: two red, one bright blue, and one pale violet. On some occasions, two unidentified faint yellow lines and a second violet line were detected. Hydrogen and neon were absent. Wendt and Irion commented:

    "The appearance of helium and the absence of hydrogen is interesting for two reasons. In the first place, it seems to dispose of the objection that the helium arose from gas remaining in the wire, for in that case hydrogen should also have been visible, for it was probably originally present in the wire in much larger quantity than was helium. In the second place, if the helium does arise from a decomposition of the tungsten atoms, the absence of hydrogen is also interesting because the atomic weight of tungsten is exactly 46 times the atomic weight of helium, and Rutherford was also unable to detect hydrogen from the bombardment with a-rays of carbon, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, and sulfur, whose weights are multiples of 4, though he did detect it with boron, nitrogen, fluorine, sodium, phosphorus and aluminum, whose weights are not such multiples." (2, 3)

    The possibility that helium could have been present in the tungsten could have been excluded by exploding the wire using a greater inductance to obtain a slower explosion at a lower temperature, giving complete vaporization without decomposition. However, there was not enough time available to conduct such tests. The vacuum method of preparing the tubes rigorously excluded contamination, but did not allow the collection, measurement and analysis of the gas produced. Therefore, Wendt and Irion also conducted explosions in carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure in slightly modified bulbs; this enabled them to study the helium they produced. The carbon dioxide was carefully purified and blank-tested. This method also excluded the possibility of contamination from leakage of air into the bulbs, or by the release of gas from the glass bulb or the electrodes, because the explosion was too rapid to liberate any helium from those sources by heat from the tungsten vapor. The brief duration of the high temperature could not cause the carbon dioxide to decompose into carbon monoxide and oxygen, and the scientists performed pertinent tests to prove the point.

    Unfortunately, the Associated Press widely published an exaggerated account of the "transmutation" experiment, based on the oral presentation which Wendt and Irion had made to the American Chemical Society in April, 1922. In a footnote to their article published in the Journal of the ACS (September 1922), they emphasized that, "this report is preliminary, and that nothing is proved beyond the importance of the problem and the promise of this method... For the sake of clarity it is suggested that the term disintegration be reserved for the spontaneous processes of radio-activity, that decomposition be applied to the splitting of complex atoms into simpler parts, and that transmutation be understood to imply some degree of synthesis of atomic nuclei."

    Wendt and Irion planned a compete analysis of the gas they collected, but the sample was lost in an accident. "Then the work was stopped by the failure of health of the senior author..." Two years later, S.K. Allison and William Harkins reported inconclusive negative results from their version of the experiment. Scientific American magazine, however, sponsored a test of the experiment and published the successful results! The issue remains unresolved to this day. (1)

(2)    References

1. Allison, S.K. & Harkin, William D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc.. 46 (4): 814-824 (April 1924) "The Absence of He from the Gases left after the Passage of Electrical Discharges: I, Between Fine Wires in a Vacuum; II, Through Hydrogen; III, Through Hg Vapor"

2. Rutherford, Sir Ernest: Nature 109 (2735): 418 (1 April 1922); "Disintegration of Elements”"

3. Rutherford, E.: Science 55 (1425): 422-423 (21 April 1922); "Disintegration of Elements"

4. Wendt, Gerald L. & Irion, Clarence E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 44 (9): 1887-1894 (September 1922); "Experimental Attempts to Decompose Tungsten at High Temperatures"

5. Wendt, G.E.: Science 55 (1430): 567-568 (21 April 1922); "The Decomposition of Tungsten"

Figure II. 4. 1


Figure II. 4. 2







Adept Alchemy

Part II

Modern Arcana

Chapter 5

Transmutation of Lead


(1)    A. Smits & A. Karssen
(2)    References

(1)    Arthur Smits & A. Karssen

    Prof. Arthur Smits and Dr. A. Karssen (Univ. of Amsterdam) published reports of their alleged transmutation of lead into mercury and thallium in 1924. Their work was inspired by that of Prof. Miethe, who claimed to have transformed mercury into gold in a modified Jaenicke mercury ultraviolet lamp. (4, 5)

    The lamp was constructed of lead quartz. Two legs (A, B), ending in narrow tubes, contain two steel electrodes cemented with sealing wax. The electrodes were inserted in two small removable copper water coolers (G, H). Pure liquid lead was poured into storage vessel C, after which the open end was sealed off. The lead was kept liquid at 350o C by an electric furnace around C. Tube D contained capillary F and terminated in stopcock K, which was connected to a mercury diffusion pump (Fig. 5.1).

    When a high vacuum was attained, vessel C was further heated with a Bunsen burner to dissociate all the oxide and gases. Stopcock K was then closed and disconnected from the pump. The apparatus was tilted so the liquid lead ran into the two legs (A, B) of the lamp. The legs of the lamp were heated to redness to drive off the gases from the electrodes, and the lamp was evacuated again. Then copper water coolers were placed around the legs, and the lamp was ready to use. At the end of the experiment, the liquid lead was returned to vessel C, which was continuously heated. The lead was specially prepared and purified by the firm of Kahlbaum of Berlin to prevent every contamination, especially mercury.

    The experiment was monitored with a quartz spectroscope. After a current of 30-35 amperes/8 volts was passed through the system for 6 hours, a few mercury lines began to appear in the spectrum. After 10 hours, the entire series of lines of mercury, plus those of thallium, were apparent in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum.

    In 1926, Smits and Karssen reported further developments of their experimental protocol. The lamp was redesigned, and the mercury diffusion pump was replaced by a mechanical pump to eliminate the possibility of contamination from that source. The use of a mercury manometer was avoided by employing a glass spring manometer. All the equipment was examined with a spectroscope to make certain it was free from mercury and thallium. They described their method as follows:

    "After filling the storage vessel, the lamp and the lead were heated in high vacuum to redness. The lead oxide being dissociated, the liquid lead was as brilliant as mercury. Then the lead was brought into the lamp, and after ignition the spectrum was observed at 25 V/36 A, by a Hilger quartz-spectrograph. Further, the spectrum of a quartz mercury lamp was observed, and also the scale in such a way that, to facilitate comparison, the different spectra were adjacent. Thus we obtained the spectrum of the lead in its initial state. After that we burned the lamp at 40 A/80 V for 10 hours. After having done this the lead was poured into the storage vessel to obtain thorough mixing; the lead was then brought into the lamp again, and after ignition the spectrum was observed at 25 V/36 A. The result was that, whilst initially the lead spectrum showed only very weakly the mercury line 2536 in the ultra-violet, after 10 hours' burning the strongest mercury lines had appeared in the visible as well as in the ultra-violet part of the spectrum, and also the most characteristic thallium line, indicating a transmutation of lead into mercury and thallium.

    "Since our experiments showed that a high current density is very favourable to this transformation, we used currents up to 60 A, but that seemed to be dangerous, because only by intensive air cooling could melting of the quartz-lamp be prevented.

    "We thought it better, therefore, to change our method a little, by applying not a continuous electrical current but sparks of high current densities... While the lamp was kept oscillating by a mechanical arrangement... a current of high-density [60-100 A] was breaking and making... This method was very successful... After 9-1/4 hours' sparking all mercury lines, even the very weak ones, were present...

    "This, however, does not yet prove the transmutation to be strong, as it is known that a relatively strong quantity of mercury can cause the spectrum of another element to disappear. But at all events our spectra show in a very convincing way the transmutation of lead into mercury..."

    The researchers also conducted experiments with a nitrogen atmosphere at various pressures and a liquid dielectric (carbon disulfide) with 100kv/2 milliamperes for 12 hours. The mercury was chemically detected as the iodide. Similar results were obtained with 160 kv/10-20 milliamps. In six such experiments, 0.1-0.2 mg of mercury was recovered. The researchers suspected that the CS2 had contained a trace of some organic mercury compound. Positive results were still obtained, however, even after it had been thoroughly purified.

    Smits offered this explanation for the transmutations:

    "In the case of the transmutation of lead into mercury, the inactive isotopes having the atomic weights 206, 208 and 210, we may assume, for example, that the isotope 206 suffers a transmutation giving an isotope of mercury:

    Pb - a = Hg

    201 - 4 = 202

    82 - 2 = 80

    "But we may also assume that the other isotopes 208 and 210 undergo a transmutation. In that case we obtain:

    Pb - 2a - 2q = Hg

    208 - 4 = 202

    82 - 2 = 80, and:

    Pb - 2a - 2q = Hg

    208 - 8 = 200

    82 - 4 + 2 = 80

    "In the case of the transmutation of lead into thallium we can assume, for example, the following process:

    Pb - a - q = Tl

    208 - 4 = 204

    82 - 2 + 1 = 81

    "We see that of the different transmutation possibilities, [the first] is most simple. Moreover, I suspected this process could be expected first, as lead is the end-product of the spontaneous radioactive transformations... The best method of learning the nature of the transmutation is to examine spectroscopically whether the process is accompanied by the formation of helium or hydrogen, and to determine the atomic weights of the heavier products...

    "While using the old quartz-lead lamp, negative results were obtained only if the current strength was lower than 15 amperes, but now, with our new lamps... spectroscopically negative results were found even using 60 amperes. The lamp showed distinctly different properties in burning and sparking. This proves that the phenomena taking place in the quartz-lead lamp depend on influences unknown until now, so that transmutation in the quartz-lead lamp is not so easy to reproduce as we expected." (2)

    In 1926, A.C. Davies and Frank Horton reported that they had been unsuccessful in their attempts to replicate the Smits-Karssen experiments. They offered these speculations:

    "In the case of the transmutation of lead (82) into mercury (80), the change may occur either by the intermediate production of thallium by one of the processes already suggested [viz, "the entry of an electron into, or by the removal of a proton from, the nucleus of the mercury atom."], and the subsequent conversion of the thallium into mercury by a second similar process, or it can occur as a one-stage change by the ejection from the lead nucleus of either one doubly charged positive particle (presumably an a-particle) or two singly charged positive particles (presumably protons) simultaneously. If the process occurs by the intermediate production of thallium, one would expect to find evidence of a relatively large amount of thallium compared with the amount of mercury produced. Prof. Smits does not seem to have found such an effect, for he records stronger evidence of the production of mercury than of the production of thallium...

    "When atoms are bombarded by electrons, it is possible that in a few instances an electron penetrates within the K shell of extra-nuclear electrons, though it is certainly surprising that this is possible in the circumstances of these experiments. When such a penetration does occur, the electron will be attracted towards the nucleus and may possibly be absorbed by it. Even so, in some cases the absorption of an electron by the nucleus may render the latter unstable and disruption may occur with the ejection of a proton and an electron, either separately or together, in which case the final chemical state of the disturbed atom will be the same as if the electron had been absorbed by the nucleus and a stable condition attained."

    For some unknown reason, these explorations were not continued, and the issue disappeared from the scientific literature after 1928. This line of research remains open to exploration, since the questions it raised remain unanswered to this day.

(2)    References

1. Anonymous: Science-Supplement 62 (1602): 14 (11 Sept. 1925); "The Transmutation of Lead"; ibid., 63 (1623): 10 (5 Feb. 1926); "Transmutation of the Elements"

2. Davies, A.C., & Horton, Frank: Nature 117 (2935): 152 (30 Jan. 1926); "The Transmutation of Elements"

3. Nature 117 (2952): 758-760 (29 May 1926).

4. Smits, A., & Karssen, A.: Scientific American 133 (4): 230, 231 (Oct. 1925); "Cracking the Lead Atom"; ibid., 134 (2): 80, 81 (Feb. 1926); "The Transmutation of Elements"

5. Smits, A.: Nature 114 (2869): 609, 610 (25 Oct. 1924);"Transformations of Elements"; ibid., 117 (1931): 13-15 (2 Jan. 1926); ibid., 117 (1948): 620 (1 May 1926); "Transmutation of the Elements"; ibid., Nature 120(3022): 475, 476 (1 Oct. 1027); "Transmutation of Elements"

6. Thomassen, L.: Nature 119 (3005): 813 (4 June 1927); Transmutation of Elements"

7. Smits, A. & Karssen, A.: Die Naturwissenschaften 13 (32): 699 (7 August 1925); "Vorlaufige Mitteilung uber einen Zerfall des Bleiatoms"




Adept Alchemy

Part II

Modern Arcana

Chapter 7

Transmutations of Mercury


(1)    H. Nagaoka, et al.
(2)    F. Tausend
(3)    R. Caro & Kamala-Jnana
(4)    References

(1)    Hantaro Nagaoka ~ Adolf Miethe ~ Hans Stammreich

Prof.  Hantaro Nagaoka

    In March 1924, Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka, et al. (Tokyo Imperial University), described their studies on satellites of the spectral lines of isotopes of mercury and bismuth, in which they detected gold. In May 1925, they reported some of the technical details: Nagaoka and his co-workers discharged about 15 x 104 volts/cm for 4 hours between tungsten and mercury terminals under a dielectric layer of paraffin oil. They used the Purple of Cassius test to detect gold in the viscous residue of C, Hg, etc. The black mass was purified in vacuo, then by combustion with oxygen and extraction with HCl to yield Au, either in aqua regia solution or as ruby-red spots in the glassware. Microscopic films of Au were found on occasion. (19, 22)

    Nagaoka stated that when a discharge was passed through drops of Hg falling between iron electrodes, the formation of silver and other elements was observed. Another run of the Hg lamp for more than 200 hours at 226 volts produced a milligram of gold, plus some platinum. He noted that it was essential to distill the mercury repeatedly below 200oC to ensure success of the experiment.

    Considerations of the satellites of the spectral lines of Hg led Nagaoka to the conclusion that a proton is "slightly detached" from the nucleus of Hg, and it can be removed:

    "If the above assumption as to the Hg nucleus is valid, we can perhaps realize the dream of alchemists by striking out a hydrogen-proton from the nucleus by a-rays, or by some other powerful methods of disruption [to produce Au from Hg]." (21, 26)

    At about the same time, Professor Adolf Miethe of the Photochemical Department at the Berlin Technical High School found that the mercury vapor lamps used as a source for ultra-violet rays ceased to work after a time because of a sooty deposit that formed in the quartz tubes. Miethe tested these deposits and detected gold. Subsequently, Dr. Miethe and Dr. Hans Stammreich were issued German Patent Specification #233,715 (8 May 1924) for "Improvements in or Relating to the Extraction of Precious Metals":

    "An electric arc is formed between mercury poles, in the same way as is done in mercury quartz lamps. With sufficient difference in potential, gold is then produced in the mercury. It is advisable to condense again the evaporated mercury. The quantity of gold produced depends, all other conditions being equal, on the quantity of current and also, among others, on the vapor pressure of the mercury or on the difference of potential in the arc. The difference of potential in the arc must therefore be sufficiently great. If it drops to excessively small amounts, the efficiency will be greatly reduced. If the difference of potential is increased, the quantity of gold formed will be considerably increased, beginning with a certain difference of potential." (12)

    In July of 1924, Drs. Miethe and Stammreich announced that they had changed mercury into gold in a high-tension mercury vapor lamp. The experiment produced $1 of gold at a cost of $60,000, equivalent to over $2 million (gold then sold for $330/lb). Miethe used a potential of 170 volts applied for 20-200 hours. The lamp consumed 400-2,000 watts. A minimum potential difference is necessary. The yield of gold was minute: 0.1-0.01 mg. The mercury and the electrodes were analyzed and determined to be free of gold before the experiments. Miethe was not able to attempt to prove the production of alpha or beta rays, hydrogen or helium. (22)

    O. Honigschmid and E. Zintl determined the atomic weight of Miethe's mercuric Au, using potentiometric titration of auric salt with TiCl2. It was found to be 197.26, which is heavier than ordinary Au (197.2). They emphasized the need for a mass spectrographic analysis. (10)

    Frederick Soddy suggested that such a change might be effected by attaching an electron to the mercury nucleus:

    "Consider the collision of high-speed electrons with mercury atoms. A small proportion of these electrons must be directed upon the nucleus. If they possess sufficient energy to penetrate the external levels of electrons in the mercury atom, they must reach the positively charged nucleus and be captured by it. Since the loss of an electron (as a b-ray) by the nucleus of an element results in the atomic number of the element in question being increased by one, the gain of an electron by an atomic nucleus must result in the diminution of the atomic number by one. This is quite general. In the case of an isotope of mercury of atomic number 80, the product will be an isotope of gold of atomic number 79. Upon existing knowledge it is simply a question of (1) the potential sufficient to drive the electron through the outer levels of electrons surrounding the mercury nucleus until it comes within the sphere of attraction of the powerfully charged nucleus; (2) whether the exceedingly small fraction of direct collisions with the nucleus that is to be anticipated will be sufficient to enable the gold produced to be detected.

    "As regards the first, it may be expected that the repulsion of the external shell of mercury electrons will diminish rather than prevent altogether the chance of the radiant electron reaching the nucleus; for once the shell is penetrated, the resultant force on the radiant electron must be on the average an attraction... The chemical detection of the gold produced would probably be the more formidable experimental difficulty." (30)

    A.S. Russell offered this opinion:

    "The experiments on the transformation of Hg into Au suggest the possibility of the transformation of a nucleus into that of the element next below it by the absorption of one electron when both nuclei are stable. This occurs most obviously as an isobare. The possibility of the existence of two isobares of odd mass-number, Tl 205 and Au 199, among non-radioactive elements may be inferred from experimental work... Aston has shown the existence of the Hg isotope 199... This type of transformation may occur in the two pairs of elements Pb and Tl, Hg and Au... The masses of the Tl and Au produced are 205 and 199 respectively".

    Aston advanced strong arguments against the probability of the alleged Hg-Au transmutation. Conceivably it could be effected by the addition of an electron to the nucleus of Hg, or by removing a proton from it, but the chance of an electron hitting a nucleus is extremely remote, and its weight would not make a significant contribution. Theoretically, a Hg isotope of atomic weight 197 could absorb an electron and produce common Au, but none of the six Hg isotopes (198, 199, 201, 202, 204, 209) identified by Aston have that weight. According to Aston, the removal of a proton from the nucleus by Miethe's method is untenable:

    "The forces employed are ludicruously inadequate." (1, 22)

    The process can be shown as:

    Hg - a - q = Au

    At. wt. 201 - 4 = 197

    80 - 2 + 1  = 79 , or:

    Hg - 4H - 3q = Au

    At. wt. 201 - 4 = 197

    80 - 4 + 3 = 79

    In December 1924, the journal Scientific American announced that it would arrange for a comprehensive and exact test of the Miethe experiment. It was conducted at New York University by Prof. H.H. Sheldon and Roger Estey. They used a quartz lamp that contained no gold, and pure tungsten wires were sealed into the quartz to provide electrical contacts. The mercury was tested for purity. Three runs were made lasting from 30-50 hours each, at about 170 volts/13 amperes. The mercury was removed and tested:

    "In no instance was any trace of gold detected... According to Prof. Miethe's reports, taken in connection with the theoretical interpretation of Prof. Soddy, this experiment should have produced a substantial quantity of gold; at least ten times as much as could easily have been detected by the analytical methods used. The negative result of the three experiments established, therefore, a strong probability that the transmutation announced by Prof. Miethe could not be confirmed. "(27)

    The researchers procured from the manufacturers in Germany a replica of the lamp used by Miethe, and repeated the exact technique described by him. The final run lasted 172 hours, at 165-174 volts/12 amps, depending upon the temperature of the lamp:

    "After the run the most careful analytical tests failed to show any trace whatsoever of the precious metal. It is necessary to conclude, therefore, that the experiment described by Prof. Miethe does not always result in the transmutation of mercury atoms into gold atoms. The experiments recorded by Prof. Miethe and our on experiments, conducted as far as humanly possible in exactly the method described by Prof. Miethe, are entirely discordant with each other.

    "It would be improper to assert on the basis of these results alone, that Prof. Miethe's experiments have been proved to be definitely wrong. All that is proper to say is that a careful, competent, and long continued effort to confirm the German results has resulted in an entire failure to do so."

    The Scientific American offered a suggestion:

    "One very vital possibility of mistake in experiments of this character lies in the accidental presence of a small impurity of gold in the mercury employed... It is at least possible that such was the case... Perhaps it will be discovered that some minor and unnoticed detail in the arrangements or in the conduct of the experiment was really responsible for a successful transmutation in Prof. Miethe's case... We must confess, however, that we do not believe that this will prove to be the case. On the basis of all the evidence now available, including the experiments of Dr. Sheldon and Mr. Estey... it is our belief that a transmutation of mercury atoms into gold atoms does not occur and will not occur under the conditions which have been described by Prof. Miethe.

    "It is to be freely admitted, of course, that a transmutation of mercury atoms into gold atoms is a theoretical possibility. The internal structures of the two atoms are similar. The removal of one unit of positive electric charge from the nucleus of a mercury atom, or the insertion of one additional electron into this atomic nucleus would result, it is believed, in the conversion of the mercury atom into an atom indistinguishable from the ordinary atoms of gold. Quite aside from the failure to confirm the results of Prof. Miethe, it remains entirely possible that one of these changes of atomic structure can be accomplished by some physical or chemical method yet to be discovered...

    "Gold can be extracted from mercury, but mercury cannot be transmuted into gold."

    Sheldon and Estey also commented:

    "The suggested explanation of a change of the number of electrons in the nucleus changing mercury to gold seems good in theory, but incredible in fact, for the potential drop per mean free path of a Hg molecule is only about 0.1 volt in these arcs." (28)

    Scientific American published another report of "More Mercuric Gold from Germany" in April 1926, announcing that a 10,000-fold increase in yield had been obtained in the production of mercuric-gold process. In his first experiments, Miethe found1 part Au per 100 million parts Hg. The Siemens Works in Berlin bombarded Hg with electrons in extremely high vacuum, and obtained 100 mg Au from 1 kg of Hg. (27)

    Siemens & Halske Akt.-Ges. registered their German Patent Specification (#243,670) in June 1925 for "Treating Mercury" with spark discharges, cathode rays, and canal rays. The difference of potential could be between 100-150,000 volts; capacitance was adjustable. Paraffin, ether, or carbon tetrachloride were used as dielectrics. (29)

    Other researchers were not so optimistic. Erich Tiede, et al., reported "The transmutation of Hg into Au is considered theoretically possible but all experiments carried out under strict control of the original Hg proved to be failures. When the Hg, which was purified according to Miethe and Stammreich, was distilled in an all-glass apparatus similar to the one used by Bronsted and von Hevesey to separate the isotopes of Hg, it showed still up to 10-9% Au. Optical detection is not sufficiently accurate, so they considered it necessary to melt the Au granule, which still held Hg, and weigh it on a microbalance. (32)

    Milan Garrett (Clarendon Lab, Oxford) published completely negative results of his repeated attempts to reproduce the Hg-Au transmutation experiment by several methods. Garrett also attempted to prepare indium from tin, and scandium from titanium by X-ray bombardment, also without success. (5)

    Erich Tiede, et al., reported the negative results of their experiments:

    "Mercury distilled according to Miethe still had 0.3 mg Au per kg Hg. After two high-vacuum distillations, no more Au could be detected. With this preparation the experiments of Miethe were repeated in several forms; no resultant Au formation was observed in any case."

    E. Duhme and A. Lotz confirmed this negative finding. Duhme and Lotz also conducted numerous experiments with the initial cooperation of Miethe and Stammreich. They used very large arcs carrying 10 kw at 40 kv/800 A/cm2 through Hg vapor. Gold was found in some instances, such as when a sufficiently powerful current was passed between electrodes dipped in mercury, but those experiments were rejected because there had been too much contact with foreign metals. They found that Au will escape detection if certain impurities are present, producing an inhomogenous distribution of Au that becomes detectable only after the arc treatment has coagulated it. (3, 4, 31)

    Prof. Fritz Haber, et al., made careful attempts to repeat the work of Nagaoka and Miethe. Mercury in which no Au could be detected was subjected to six different treatments, but no Au was formed. In some cases, Au was found, but only in amounts smaller than what could have come from the materials, or from contamination. Nor could the yield be increased at will. The applied treatments were made with liquid and solid dielectrics with high-tension discharges, arcs in low, normal and high pressures, and high-vacuum electron bombardments.

    The extraordinary sensitivity of their detection methods was exemplified by the instance of a co-worker who suddenly found traces of gold in some material he was analyzing. No one else could detect Au in the other samples. It was found that the chemist habitually removed his gold frame eyeglasses before making an observation; on this occasion, he had removed the glasses and then picked up a strip of ultra-pure lead to perform an analysis. Another incident occurred when a lab worker was melting some Au; soon afterwards, another worker in the next room found Au in material which previously had none in it. The authors proved "merely that no method has yet been published whereby analytically detectable amounts of Au can be formed in Hg." (8)

    Scientific American (April 1926) reported on a recent meeting of the German Chemical Society, at which positive results were announced:

    "Prof. Haber, who previously cherished the greatest doubt as to the accuracy of the experiments, congratulated Prof. Miethe and related... that he himself could confirm the results by repetition of the experiment."

    Haber apparently made the comment before he had completed his analyses of the electrodes, etc, and determined them to be the source of the Au.

    Most of the criticism of Miethe, Stammreich, and Nagaoka's experimental work focused on the questionable purity of the mercury they used. Their Hg had been purified by distillation and by dissolving it in nitric acid (1:4) and fusing the residue with borax (0.1 gr). The resulting bead of Au, if any, was examined under the microscope. Usually they distilled the Hg twice, but in some cases as many as 15 times. Other researchers showed that no matter how carefully or often Hg was distilled, Au could be detected.

    Miethe and Stammreich showed that the formation of Au from Hg depends on the application of intermittent electrical discharges. No gold forms when Hg is exposed to direct current. They also described a Hg-turbine which allowed 2,000 breaks/minute with a potential of 110 volts; the current varied from 1-12 amps. The experiments showed a linear proportionality between the yield of Au and the product of wattage and time. The average yield of gold was 0.0004 mg/amp/hour. The production of Au was facilitated by high-pressure. When the discharge was passed between Hg poles in a paraffin dielectric, the gold was found dispersed along the line of discharge, but not in the Hg poles. (15)

    Alois Gaschler attempted to reverse the Miethe-Nagaoka experiment by treating gold with high-speed hydrogen nuclei. He assumed that one of them might penetrate deeply into the electron shells of Au, be held by the innermost shells as a "paranucleus", and form a "Tiefenverbindung". After 30 hours bombardment, the spectrum of the tube began to show Hg lines that steadily increased in intensity. Gaschler postulated that Hg is a gold hydrogen compound, similar to Manley's "Hg-Helide". (6, 7, 13)

    The scientific community gave a fair and thorough review of the claims of Miethe, Stammreich and Nagaoka, who also skillfully managed the criticism. The entire issue, however, was never definitively resolved. These experiments ought to be repeated with modern equipment and analytical techniques.

    The "conventional" transmutation of Hg by fast neutrons (Li + D) was first accomplished by R. Sherr, et al., at Harvard University in 1941; three short-lived radioactive isotopes were formed.

(2)    Franz Tausend

    The German alchemist Franz Tausend began to produce gold from mercury in the 1920s under the auspices of General Ludendorff. His work was based on a circular table of 180 elements arranged according to a system of harmonic frequencies and atomic weights.

    The ingredients of Tausend's formula are known to be: (Part 1) --- PbCl2 (111 gr), KOH (60 gr) and (Part 2) --- K (76 gr), Na (55 gr) amalgamated with Hg (131 and 365 gr) melted under paraffin. Reaction of Part 1 (17.4 gr) with Part 2 (5.4 gr) yielded 5.4 gr Au.

    Tausend also employed other reagents, but it is not known how or why they were used: ammonium carbonate, lime, potassium nitrate, soda, borax, sulfuric acid, and potassium cyanide, oxalic acid, uranyl nitrate, aluminum chloride, potassium arsenide, lead sulfate, tin oxide, silica, and asbestos.

(3)    Roger Caro & Kamala-Jnana

    The French alchemical school of the Temple of Ajunta published a few small hermetic texts (Pleiade Alchimique, Concordances Alchimiques, etc) in the 1960s. The Complete Great Work Photographed includes 40 photographs of the Ars Magna as it was performed by Kamala-Jnana and Roger Caro.

    The method is described in classical alchemical language, but most of the materials and methods are clearly described. Mercury was used to produce a species of Philosophers' Stone. The process can be described in chemical terms as follows: Prepare (1) b-meta-cinnabarite (a-cinnabarite will not produce the same results, in my experience), (2) a concentrated solution of a mixture of lime and potash and (3) sulfureted potash (potassium polysulfide). Saturate the cinnabarite with the lime-potash mixture solution, then dry it. Repeat several times until albedo appears. Then saturate with a concentrated solution of potassium polysulfide, and strip the solvent (methyl or ethyl alcohol also can be used). Repeat this step until white needles appear (the Dragon's Teeth). The color changes from yellow to orange to red. The Stone is multiplied by grinding it to powder and repeating (7x) the wash with lime-potash. At this point, the Stone emits lights --- probably from the calcium sulfide byproduct of the reaction mixture. Further elaboration and transmutation of lead to gold can be accomplished according to the skill of the Artist.

(4)    References

1. Aston: Nature 116 (2929): 902-904 (19 December 1925); "Atoms & X-Rays"

2. Davies, A.C., & Horton, Frank: Nature 117 (2935): 152 (30 Jan. 1926); "The Transmutation of Elements"

3. Duhme, E. & Lotz, A.: Wissenschaft Veroffentlich Siemens Konzern 5: 128-151 (1926

4. Duhme, E. & Lotz, A.: Chem. Ber. Deutsch. Ges. 59(7B): 1649-1651 (7 July 1926); "Zur Frage Gold aus Quecksilber"; Chem. Abstr 20: 3264 (1926)

5. Garrett, Milan W.: Nature 118 (2959): 84 (17 July 1926); "Transmutation Experiments"

6. Gaschler, Alois Zeit. Elektrochem. 32: 186-187 (1926): "Transmutation of Au into Hg"

7. Gaschler, A.: Scientific American (August 1926)

8. Haber, Fritz, et al.: Zeitschrift fur Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie 153 (3): 153-183 (10 June 1926); "Uber die Angebliche Darstellung kunstilchen Goldes aus Quicksilber"; Chem. Abstr. 20: 2614; ibid., 19: 3443;

9. Haber. F.: Nature (29 May 1926).

10. Honigschmid, O. & Zintl, E.: Die Naturwissenschaften 13 (29): 644 (1925); "Uber das Atomgewicht des von Miethe und Stammreich aus Quecksilber Gewonnen Goldes"

11. Honigschmid, O.: Zeit. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 147 (1-3): 262-264 (17 Aug. 1925).; "Ubver das Atomgewicht des von A. Miethe & H. Stammreich ausQuecksilber Gewonnen Goldes"

12. Literary Digest (14 March 1925); "Attempts at Artificial Au"; ibid., (12 December 1925); "Negative Evidence in the Hg-Au Case"; ibid., (6 February 1926).

13.    Manley, J.J.: Nature 114: 861 91924); ibid., 115: 337 (1925)

14. Miethe, Adolf: Die Naturwissenschaften 12 (29): 597, 598 (July 18, 1924); "Der Zerfall des Quicksilberatoms"; ibid., 13: 635-637 (1925); "Transmutation of Hg"

15. Miethe, A. & Stammreich, H.: Zeischrift fur Anorgansiche und Allgemeine Chemie 150 (4): 350-354 (8 Feb. 1926); "Bildung von Gold aus Quecksilber in Abreibenden Lichtbogen"

16. Miethe, A. & Stammreich, H. German Patent Specification #233,715 [Class 82 (i).], (8 May 1924).

17. Miethe, A. & Stammreich, H.: French Patent 598,140 (1925); "Procede pour la production de l'or"

18. Nagaoka, H.: Chem. Abstracts 19: 3209 (1925)

19. Nagaoka, H.: Die Naturwissenschaften 13 (29): 635-637 (17 July 1925); "Gold aus Quecksilber";ibid., 13 (31): 682-684 (31 July 1925); "Die Umwandlung von Quecksilber in Gold"; ibid., 14: 85 (1926)

20. Nagaoka, H.: Nature 116 (2907): 95, 96 (18 July 1925); "Preliminary Note on the Transmutation of Hg into Au"

21. Nagaoka, H.: Journal de Physique et la Radium 6: 209 (1925)

22. Nature 114: 197 ( 9 August 1924); ibid., 117 (2952): 604 (29 May 1926); “Transmutation of Hg into Au"; ibid., 117 (2952): 758-760 (29 May 1926); "The Present Position of the Transmutation Controversy"

23. Piutti, Arnaldo, & Boggio-Lera, Enrico: Giorn. chim. ind. applicata 8: 59-61 (1925

24. Reisenfeld, E.H., & Haase, W.: Die Naturwissenschaften 13 (35): 745 28 Aug. 1925); "Uber die Herstellung von Gold Freiem Quecksilber"

25. Russell, A.S.: Nature 116 (2913): 312 (29 Aug. 1925); "Transformation of Hg into Au"

26. Science 61 (#1581), 17 April 1925; "The Transmutation of Hg"

27. Scientific American 131 (6): 389 (Dec. 1924); "Why We are trying to make Gold"; ibid., 132 (3): 157 (March 1925); "Our Artificial Gold Investigation"; ibid., 133 (5): 296, 297(Nov. 1925); "Tests Fail to Confirm Transmutation to Gold"; ibid., 135 (2): 151, 152 (August 1926); "Transmutation of Gold into Quicksilver: A New Method of Attack";ibid., p. 90 (17 April 1926); ibid., 138 (3): 208 (March 1928); "The Retreat of the Modern Alchemists"

28. Sheldon, Horton & Estey, Roger S.: Phys. Review 27 (2): 515 (1926); "Report on the Failure of the Mercury to Gold Transmutation Experiment"

29. Siemens & Halske Akt.-Ges.: German Patent Spec. #243,670 [Cl. 39(i) &82 (i)]; "Treating Hg"; United Kingdom Patent Specification 233,715 (7 May 1925): "Improvements in or Relating to the Extraction of Precious Metals"; UK Patent Specification 243,670 (12 June 1925); "A Process for Converting Mercury into Another Element"

30. Soddy, Frederick: Nature 114: 244 (16 August 1924); "The Reported Transmutation of Hg into Au"

31.    Tiede, Erich, et al.: Die Naturwiss. 13 (35): 745-746 (28 Aug. 1925); "Zur Frage der Bildung von Gold aus Quecksilber"

32. Tiede, E., et al.: Chem. Ber. Deutsch. Ges. 59: 1629-1641 (1926); "The Formation of Au from Hg..."






M. Carey LEA
" Allotropic " Silver

Carey Lea discovered the preparation of so-called "allotropic" and "intermediate" silver in 1889 while he was studying reductions of silver nitrate. "Allotropic" is however a misnomer, . In 1925, Dr. Richard Zsigmondy, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Göttingen, received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his study of Lea's "allotropic" silver under the ultramicrosope. Dr. Zsigmondy found that such silver actually was a monoatomic colloid of ordinary silver, not another isotope.

Lea determined that silver occurs in "allotropic", "intermediate", and ordinary forms. Ordinary silver is protean in nature. The aqueous solutions are colloidal monoatoms, and give perfectly clear solutions. The several forms of "allotropic" silver (a-Ag) dry with their particles in optical contact with each other, thus forming continuous films that are beautifully colored, perfect mirrors. Strong acids and pressure will convert a-Ag to the normal form. There are three forms of a-Ag, and all are unstable.

There is also a very stable "intermediate form" of silver (i-Ag) which is easy to prepare. It occurs as bright gold-yellow or green crystals with a metallic luster. Treatment with a very dilute solution of ferric chloride will enhance the appearance of its foliar structure, interpenetrating with plant-like ramifications, or fine acicular crystals up to 1 inch long.

Intermediate silver is hard, tough, and unaffected by pressure. It is nearly as indifferent to oxidizing and chlorizing agents as is normal silver. Intermediate silver can be formed from the allotropic varieties by light, heat, or chemical action.


Excerpts from Journals --
Amer. J. Science ( 3 rd Series ) 37 ( 222 ) 476 - 491 ( June 1889 )
"On Allotropic Forms of Silver"
"... The form of allotropic silver which I have obtained may be classified as follows : --
A. Soluble, deep red in solution, mat lilac, blue, or green whilst moist, brilliant bluish metallic when dry.
B. Insoluble, derived from A, dark reddish brown whilst moist, when dry somewhat resembling A.
C. Gold, silver, dark broze whilst wet, when dry exactly resembling gold in burnished lumps. Of this form there is a variety which is copper-colord. Insoluble in water, appears to have no corresponding soluble form.
All these forms have several remarkable properties in common :
I. That of drying with their particles in optical contact and consequently, forming a continuous film...
II. The halogen reaction ... very beautiful color reactions are obtained...
III. The action of acids ... instantly convert the allotropic forms of silver into normal gray silver... absolutely without the separation of gas...
IV. Physical Condition ... All these allotropic forms of silver are easily reduced to an impalpable powder...
Preparation ---
A. Soluble Allotropic Silver
A solution of ferrous citrate added to one of a silver salt produces instantly a red liquid (Ferrous sulfate gives the same reaction but is less advantageous). These red solutions may either exhibit tolerable permanency or may decolorize, letting fall a black precipitate. It is not necessary to prepare the ferrous salt in an isolated form, a mixture of ferrous sulfate and sodium citrate answers perfectly.
When however concentrated solutions are used with a large excess of ferrous sulfate and a still larger one of alkaline citrate, the liquid turns almost completely black. It should be stirred very thoroughly for several minutes to makes sure that the whole of the precipitated silver citrate is acted upon by the iron. After standing for 10 or 15 minutes, the liquid may be decanted and will leave a large quantity of a heavy precipitate of fine lilac-blue color. It is best to adhere closely to certain proportions:
Of a 10% solution of silver, 200 cc may be placed in a precipitating jar. In another vessel are mixed 200 of a 30% solution of ferrous sulfate and 280 cc of a 40% solution of sodic citrate.( The same quantity of ferrous sulfate or of sodic citrate in a larger quantity of water will occasion much loss of the silver product). I think some advantage is gained by neutralizing the ferrous solution, which has a strong acid reaction, with the solution of sodium hydroxide: as much may be added as will not cause a permanent precipitate. To the quantities already given, about 50 cc of 10% soda solution. The reaction takes place equally well without the soda, but I think the product is a little more stable with it. ) The mixed solution is to be added at once to the silver solution.

The beautiful lilac shade of the precipitate is rather ephemeral. It remains for some time if the precipitate is left under the mother water, but when thrown upon a filter, it is scarcely uncovered before the lilac shade disappears and the precipitate takesa deep blue color, without losing its solubility. It may be washed either on a filter or by decantation, with any saline solution in which it is insoluble and which does not affect it too much. On the whole, ammonium nitrate does best, but sodic nitrate, citrate, or sulfate may be used, or the corresponding ammonia salts. Although in pure water the precipitate instantly dissolves with an intense blood red color, the presence of 5 or 10% of any of these salts renders it perfectly insoluble. I have usually proceeded by adding to the precipitate ( after decanting the mother water as completely as possible...), a moderateamount of water; for the above quantities about 150 cc. Much less would dissolve the precipitate but for the salts present: this much will dissolve the greater part but not the while, which is not necessary. A little of a saturated solution of ammonium nitrate is to be added, just enough to effect complete precipitation.

As the material appears continually to change, the amount of washing needed must depend upon the object in view. If wanted for analysis, the washing must be repeated many times until a ferric salt ceases to come away, but no amount of washing will eliminate it entirely. After 7 or 8 solutions in pure water and as many precipitations, the material is to be filtered and then the ammonium nitrate washed out with 95% alcohol until the filtrate leaves nothing on evaporation. The substance at this point is still soluble in water, though much less so than at first. During the washing the solubility slowly but steadily diminishes, a fact rendered noticeable by less and less ammonium nitrate being needed to precipitate it from its solution...

... The freshly precipitated material dissolves to a blood red liquid, by great dilution yellowish red. The purified substance gives a darker red solution, which with dilution remains still red ...

B. Insoluble Form of the Foregoing

The solution of the blue product just described is influenced in a remarkable way by the addition of almost any neutral substance. So far I hve not found any that does not precipitate it. Not only saline solutions do this, but even a solution of gum arabic.

Neutral salts may precipitate the silver in either a soluble or an insoluuble form. Alkaline sulfates, nitrates and citrates throw down the soluble form, magnesium sulfate, cupric sulfate, ferrous sulfate, nickel sulfate, potassium bichromate and ferrocyanide, barium nitrate, even silver nitrate and other salts throw down a perfectly insoluble form. The soluble form cosntitutes a bluish or bluish black precipitate; the insoluble, a purple brown, which by repeated washings continually darkens.

What is very curiosu is that the insoluble form may be made to return to the soluble condition. many substances are capable of effecting this change. Sodium borate does so, produing a brown solution, potassium and sodium sulfate produce a yellowish red solution and ammonium sulfate a red one. None of these solutions has the same blood-red color as the original solution; the form of silver seems to change with the slightest change of ondition.

The solutions used must be extremely dilute, otherwise the silver, though rendered soluble in pure water by them, will not dissolve in the solution itself, a singular complication of effects... The insoluble substance also is readily soluble in ammonia. The solution has a fine red color, and not the yellowish red of the sodium sulfate solution.

Most neutral salts act in one or another ways just described, precipitating the solution of the blue substance A in either the soluble or the insoluble form, the latter soluble in ammonia, but sodium nitrite is an exception; its solution effects an entire change and renders the substance wholly insoluble, probably reconverting it to normal silver...


Amer. J. Sci. 138 ( 223 ) p. 47 ( 1889 )

... The two insoluble forms of allotropic silver which I have described as B and C; B, bluish green, C rich golden color, show the following curious reaction. A film of B, spread on glass and heated in a water stove to 100 C for a few minutes becomes superficially bright yellow. A similar film of the gold-colored substance C treated in the same way, acquires a blue bloom. In both case it is the surface only that changes.

Sensitiveness to Light -- All these forms of silver are acted upon by light. A and B acquire a brownish tinge after some hours' exposure to sunlight. With C the case is quite different, the color changes from that of red gold to that of pure yellow gold... Complete exhaustion of air and light is certainly favorable to permanence...

Specific gravity -- The allotropic forms of silver show a lower specific gravity that that of normal silver.

In determining the s.g. it was found essential to keep the s.g. bottle after placing the material in it for some hours under vauum. Films of air attach themselves obstiantely to the surfaces and esape but slowly even in vacuo.

... Blue substance B gave sp.gr. 9.58 and the yellow substance C, sp.gr. 8.51. The sp.gr. of normal silver after melting is 10.5. That of finely divided silver is 10.62 ...


Amer. J. Sci. 42 ( 250 ) Oct., 1891.

Art. XXX. --- Notes on Allotropic Silver

Relations of the Yellow to the Blue Forms -- ... In previous papers there has been described a crystalline state intermediate between these active forms and ordinary silver, which intermediate condition, while retaining the bright yellow color of the active form is nearly as indiferrent to reagents as ordianry silver. Into this intermediate state both the yellow and blue forms are capable of passing, and apparently the intermediate states of both kinds of allotropic silver are identical: the intermediate form of blue silver is yellow. Thus when lumps of blue silver are heated in a test tube to about 180 C they assume a gold color and luster. The same changes take place at the same temperature when films of blue silver are placed in a hot air bath...

Blue silver can be converted into yellow at ordinary temperatures and consequently with retention of its active properties. This is accomplished through the delivery of sulfuric acid. When a solution of silver is obtained by the action of sodium hydroxide and dextrine on silver nitrate (*) it appears to contain the blue variety, for if allowed to precipitate spontaneously by long standing, or if precipitated by acetic acid, dilute nitric acid, or by many neutral substances, it gives a form of silver which is dark red while moist and dries with a blue surface color. (It is always a little difficult to characterize these substances by their colors since the surface color which they show when dry is mostly complementary to their color when wet. The surface color is much the more characteristic, I have adopted the course of naming them by that.

(*) 40 gr each of naOH and of yellow or brown dextrine (not white) are dissolved in 2 liters water and 28 gr Ag-Nitrate in solution are added in small quantities in turn, with frequent stirring, so that several hours shall lapse before the last portion is added. The solution is always slightly turbid when viewed by reflected light, by which it shows a beautiful deep green color. By transmitted light it is deep red, and when diluted, absolutely transparent. By diminishing the proportion of silver nitrate to one-half, a solution nearly or quite clear by reflected as well as by transmitted light is obtained.

The behavior of the red solution obtained by soda and dextrine with dilute sulfuric is very interesting and instructive. When 100 cc of solution are poured into 100 cc of water to which 3 cc sulfuric acid has been added, a dark red precipitate falls which, when dry, especially in films, is blue. The mixed liquid from which the precipitate is formed is acid. Increasing the proportion of acid to 4, 5 and 6 cc successivley, the substance obtained has a green surface color becoming more yellowish green in proportion as the acid is increased in quantity. With 7-1/2  the substance no longer dries green but yellow. Increased proportions of acid produces substances drying with a coppery shade.

It will be seen that from a single solution, and using one substnace only as a precipitant, we can obtain the whole range of different forms of allotropic silver, simply by varying the proportions of the precipitant.

That these forms of silver should subsist in the presence of sulfuric acid in excess is remarkable. For the most part the presence of this acid tends to quickly convert allotropic to ordinary silver. For example, bright yellow allotropic silver obtained with ferrous tartrate was washed on a filter with water containing 1/500 its volume of sulfuric acid: in two hours the entire mass was converted into gray ordinary silver.

...The substances precipitated with the least acid, have a very splendid luster, and this luster diminshes steadily as the proportion of acid is increased...

But we can also obtain the converse of this reaction. Just as the solution which naturally would yield the blue product, can be made to yield the yellow by the presence of excess of strong acid, so the solution which normally yields the yellwo substance, may be made to produce blue ( or rather green ) silver by adding alkali. Thus a mixture of dilute solutions of ferrous sulfate and of Rochelle salt added to mixed solutions of silver nitrate and of Rochelle salt rsults in the formation of fold-colored silver. But if we add a little sodium hydroxide to the iron solution or the silver mixture, we shall get a bluish green product, whose properties show that it belongs to the blue class and not to the yellow...

There is a well marked tendency of acids to give rise to the formation of the yellow product and of alkalies to the blue. But this is a tendency only. Both substances can be produced from neutral solutions, and slight changes are sufficient to alter the product formed. Thus, ferrous tartrate, in dilute solution acting on silver tartrate gives rise to the formation of the gold-colored substance, but when citrates are substituted, the blue substance is obtained.

Action of Light on Blue Silver -- This action differs with different varieties; it was more especially exmained with the form that is obtained from the  soda dextrine silver solution already described by pouring the solution into an equal bulk of water to which sulfuric acid had been added in the proportion of 4 cc per 100 cc water. This form was selected because it is easy to obtain with great constancy of result, and because it is one of the forms of blue silver most sensitive to light.

Exposed to light, this substance first becomes more distinctly blue, losing a slight greensih shade. With continued exposure it passes to a yellow-brown shade. and finally to a perfectly pure golden-yellow of great brilliancy and luster. The last is the intermediate or crystalline form.

The action of light on this form of silver is remarkable in this respect, that its first effect is to increase the sensitiveness to reagents.

This result was so unexpected and a priori so improbable, that it was subjected to the most careful verification before being accepted... Upon this form of silver light has a reversing action, first exalting its sensitiveness, then completely destroying it... [ like silver bromide ]

Three of the principal modes of formation of allotropic silver are:

(1) reduction of silver citrate or tartrate by ferrous nitrate or tartrate;
(2) acting on silver nitrae or oxide by dextrine and fixed alkaline hydroxide;
(3) acting on silver nitrate or carbonate by tannin and fixed alkali carbonates.

Now if in either of these cases we interrupt the action before it is complete by adding an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid we shall obtain a dark chestnut-brown or sometimes purple-brown substance which on examination proves to be a mixture of silver subchloride and protochloride. When, after complete removal of the excess hydrochloric by boiling with distilled water, the substance is treated with cold dilute nitric acid, that portion of the subchloride which is not combined with the normal chloride is broken up and there remains protochloride of a very rich and intense rose-color. It is perhaps the best means for obtaining silver protochloride... Hydrochloric acid, though without action on ordinary silver, is capable of forming a variable quantity of protochloride when placed in contact with allotropic silver.

I have not met with any exception to this general principle that when a reaction leading to the formation of allotropic silver is interrupted by the addition of hydrochloric acid, subchloride is abundantly formed as one of the products.

In all such cases the reduction is evidently indirect. The silver does not lose at once the whole of its oxygen, but appearently passes through an intermediate form, prodbably Ag4O, the reduction of which tends to the formation of allotropic silver.


Amer.J. Science ( July 1889 )

Art. XXXIV -- The Properties of Allotropic Silver

The three forms of allotropic silver which were described in the June number of this Journal -- the blue soluble and the blue and the yellow insoluble -- are not to be understood as the only forms which exist, but as the best marked only. The substance is protean and exhibits other modification not yet studied. No other metal than silver appears to be capable of assuming such a remarkable variety of appearances. Every color is represented. I have obtained metallic silver blue, green ( many shades of both ), red, yellow and purple, In enumerating these colors I do not refer to interference colors produced superficially by reagents, also wonderfully brilliant, but to body colors....

Two of the insoluble forms of allotropic silver, the gold-colored and the blue, show in many respects a close relationship and almost identical reactions... Blue allotropic silver (dark red when moist, becoming blue in drying ) is very stable. It may be exposed for weeks in a moist state on a filter, or be placed in a pasty condition in a corked vial and so kept moist for months, without alteration.
The gold-colored form on the contrary tends constantly to revert to ordinary silver. This is especially the case when it is moist, so that from the time of its formation, it must be separated from its mother water and washed as rapidly as possible, otherwise it loses its brilliancy and purity of color and changes to a dark dull gray form of normal silver. On the filter, its proper color is black with a sort of yellow shimmer ( the gold color appearing as it dries ) often, especially if allowed to become uncovered by the water during washing, it will change superficially to gray (When well washed this form can be preserved for a time in the moist condition in a corked vial). But if the washing is done rapidly with the aid of a vacuum filter, the allotropic silver obtained, when allowed to dry in lumps, or brushed on paper or glass, is at least equal to pure gold in color and brilliancy...

When gold-colored allotropic silver is gently heated in a test tube it undergoes a remarkable change in cohesion. Before heating it is brittle and easily reduced to fine powder. After heating it has greatly increased in toughness and cannot be pulverized at all.

Both the gold-yellow and the blue forms resemble normal silver in disengaging oxygen from hydrogen peroxide.

Many substances which react little if at all with ordinary silver, attack the gold-colored and the blue allotropic silver with production of very beautiful colors due to the formation of thin films and resulting interference of two reflected rays. In my previous papers I called this the "halogen reaction" because first obtained by the action of halogens... But many other reagents will produce the same or similar effects. These are:

Sulfides -- Paper brushed over with either the gold, the copper-colored, or the bluish green substance exposed to the vapor of ammonium sulfide, or immersed in a dilute solution of it, assume beautiful hues, though less brilliant than those obtained in other ways.

Potassium permanganate -- in dilute solution produces blue, red and green colors.

Potassium ferricyanide -- in moderately strong solution gradually attacks allotropic silver with production of splendid blue, purple and green coloration.

Phosphorus acid -- produces gradually a rather dull coloration.

The color reaction is produced finely by substances which readily part with a halogen such as ferric and cupric chlorides, sodium hypochlorite, hydrochloric acid to which potassium bichromate has been added, and corresponding bromine and iodine compounds... I obtained effects of the same sort but in much weaker degree with alkaline haloids. But with purer products, the results have been different. There is at first some darkening, but no true color reaction and the allotropic silver appears to be gradually converted into normal, so that it is no longer capable of giving the brilliant color reaction with potassium ferricyanide, but, like normal silver, takes a pale and faint coloration only.

The perchlorides of platinum, gold, and tin do not give the color reaction, though by analogy one would expect that they should, since they can lose chlorine with formation of a lower chloride.

Action of Light -- in a previous paper was mentioned the remarkable fact that the gold- and copper-colored forms of allotropic silver can be converted first into yellow and finally into white normal silver by the continued action of light. Earlier specimens of the blue form became brown by exposure, but purer one since obtained are likewise converted into yellow by exposure, becoming continually lighter as the action is continued. The conversion from the darker shades to a bright yellow with full metallic luster is very easy, but [ unstable ]. Since then I have obtained the gold-colored silver in a more sensitive form, giving a perfectly white product by exposure for half that time.

The white silver thus obtained has all the character of ordinary silver and does not show the color reaction with ferric and cupric chloride, potassium ferrocyanide, etc. Just in proportion to the exposure to light, the ability to give this color reaction diminishes, so that after a day's exposure, when the exposed part has become bright yellow, the color reagents scarcely affect this yellow, whilst the protected part becomes intense blue, purple, or green. In this way it is easy to observe the gradual effect of light as it changes the allotropic silver into ordinary silver.


Art. XXXV. -- on Ring Systems and other Curve Systems Produced on Allotropic Silver by iodine.

Allotropic silver, in its moist and plastic state, may be bruished over paper and gives on drying a continuous and brilliant coating resembling metalic leaf. When a small crystal of iodine is placed on paper that has been this coated, rings of remarkable beauty are obtained. A funnel or beaker should be inverted over the paper to prevent distortion by currents of air [ unless desired -- controlled air flow produces beautiful patterns ]

That iodine is capable of producing interference rings ( Nobili's rings ) on metalic surfaces has long been known, and Robert Hunt has described their formation on surfaces of normal silver... The contrast between the pale and faded-looking products produced on normal silver, and the lustrous and glowing hues given by the allotropic, is very striking. One cannot help wishing that this splendid coloration could be made to do service for obtaining natural colors by photographic processes.

As to the durability of these products... protected from light and air they endure for several months at least. Both the bluish green insoluble silver B, and the gold-colored C produce these effects; the gold-colored is the better suited of the two...

The general properties of this substance can be much better observed in the thin films obtained by brushing the moist substance over paper than in lumps. The films thus obtained are bright metallic green, and this green evidently results from a mixture of blue and yellow... When the films are examined by normal light reflected from them at a large incidence with the normal and a Nicol's prism or an achromatized prism of calc-spar is interposed between the film and the eye, it becomes at once apparent that the blue and yellow light are oppositely polarized. The yellow light is polarized in the plane of incidence, and the blue light perpendicularly to that plane. All specimens show the yellow light, but the quantity of blue light is very variable and is directly connected with the amount of washing applied to the precipitate. The more it is washed the more yellow predominates. To see the blue form in its full beauty, a little of the red solution may be precipitated with a very little magnesium or aluminum sulfate and filtered. As soon as the liquid has drained off and without any washing, the deep bronze-colored substance is to be brushed on paper. On drying it has all the appearance of a bright blue metal with a remarkable luster. The mirrors obtained on glass are so beautiful and so perfect that it seems as if this property might have useful applications...

Crystalization -- On one occasion this substance was obtained in a crystaline form. Some crude red solution had been set aside in a corked vial. Some weeks after, it was noticed that the solution had become decolorized, with a crystaline deposit... [ consisting ] of short black needles and thin prisms. Evidently the saline matters present had balanced the silver so nearly as not to cause an immediate precipitation, but a very gradual one only. The mother water was decanted, and a few drops of pure water added. No sultion took pace: the crystals were therefore of material B, the insoluble form. The contact of pure water instantly destroyed the crystalization and the substance dried with a bright green metalic luster. Contact with pure water evidently tends always to bring this form of silver into the colloidal state, sometimes soluble and sometimes not; whilst the contact with certain neutral salts renders it crystaline...

To obtain the substance in a pure condition suitable for analysis, it is necessary to choose a precipitant not giving an insoluble product with either citric or sulfuric acid. Magnesium sulfate or nickel sulfate answers well. A very dilute solution is made of it and the red solution of A is to be filtered into it. The preipitate soon settles. A large quantity of water is to be poured on, and then washing by decantation can be continued to three decantations, after which the substance remains suspended. It can be made to subside by adding a very small quantity of magnesium sulfate ( 0.25 gr/liter is sufficient). The substance may then be filtered and washed....

C. Gold Yellow and Copper-Colored Silver

It has been long known that golden-yellow specks would occasionally show themselves in silver solutions, but could not be obtained at will and the quantity was infinitesimal. Probably this phenomenon has often led to a supposition that silver might be transmuted into gold. This yellow product, however, is only an allotropic form of silver, but it has all the color and brilliance of gold...


Amer. J. Science [ 3 ] 51 ( 244 ) p 259-267 ( April 1891 )

Art. XXVIII --- On Allotropic Silver

Part II -- Relations on Allotropic Silver with Silver as it exists in Silver Compounds

... In the present case we have to consider three distinct forms (1) allotropic, (2) intermediate (3) ordinary silver. We notice that (1) can with the utmost facility and in several ways be converted into (2) and (3), and that (2) can always be converted into (3), but that these transformations can by no possibility be reversed. To convert ordinary silver into allotropic we must as a first step dissolve it in an acid: that is, convert it from a polymerized to an atomic form, and only from this atomic form can allotropic be obtained...

[ There may exist ] three possible moleular forms of silver, viz.: atomic, molecular and polymerized.,,

Silver may exist in three forms: 1st. Allotropic silver which is protean in its nature; may be soluble or insoluble in water, may be yellow, red, blue or green, or may have almost any color, but in all its insoluble varieties always exhibits plasticity, than is, if brushed in a pasty state upon a smooth surface its particles dry in contact, and with brilliant metallic luster. It is chemically active. 2nd. The intermediate form, which may be yellow, or green, always shows metallic luster, but is never plastic and is almost as indifferent chemically as white silver. 3d. Ordinary silver... Further, that alotropic silver can always be converted, either into the intermediate form, or directly into ordinary silver; that the intermediate form, or directly into ordinary silver; that the intermediate form, or directly into ordinary silver, that the intermediate form can always be converted into ordinary silver, but that these processes can never be reversed, so that to pass from ordinary silver to allotropic it must first be rendered atomi by combination, and then be brought back to the metallic form under condition which chek the atoms in uniting. Allotropic silver is affected by all forms of energy, and this effect is always in one direction, namely, towards condensation...


Art. LVIII -- Allotropic Silver ( Part III ): Blue Silver, soluble & insoluble forms

Allotropic Silver obtained with Dextrine and Alkaline Hydroxide

When dextrine is dissolved in a solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide and silver nitrate is added, keeping the hydroxide in moderate excess, the silver is at first thrown down in the form of the well known brown oxide. This brown color presently changes to a reddish chocolate shade and at the same time the silver begins to dissolve. In a few minutes the whole has dissolved to a deep red color, so intense as to be almost black. A few drops poured into water give it a splendid red color of perfect transparency. Examination with the spectroscope leaves no doubt that we have to do with a true solution.

It is interesting to obseve that silver can be held in solution in neutral, acid and alkaline liquids. In the first process which I which I published, in which silver citrate is reduced by a mixture of sodic citrate and ferrous sulfate, the latter may be used either in acid solution or it may be first neutralized with alkaline hydroxide, so that that form of silver is held in solution in either a neutral or an acid liquid. The form that is obtained with the aid of dextrine dissolves most freely in the strongly alkaline liquid in which it is produced, and when dilute nitric or sulfuric acid is added the silver is precipitated. But with acetic the precipitation is very incomplete: the solution retains a brown color and contains silver. Even the addition of a large excess of strong acetic acid fails to throw down any more silver. it follows therefore that while this form of silver is most freely soluble in a strongly alkaline it is also soluble to some extent in one that is either neutral or acid.

The precipitate when once formed appears to be almost insoluble. A small portion of it stirred up with distilled water gives no indication of solution. But if a quantity is thrown is washed on a filter, as soon as the mother water is washed out the liquid runs through of a muddy red, and if this filtrate be allowed to stand it deposits an insoluble portion and then has a fine rose-red color and perfect transparency. Notwithstanding the beautiful color it contains a trace of silver only, so great is the coloring power of the metal. Sometimes if the alkaline stnads for a month or two the silver becomes spontaneously insoluble; most of it falls to the bottom as a deep red substance, but part remains in suspension with a bright brick red color. The difference between this and the true solution as originally formed is extremely well marked.

Dextrine is a very variable substance and different specimens act very differently. Common brown dextrine seems to do better than the purified forms.

Convenient proportions are as follows: in two liters of water 40 grams of sodium hydroxide may be dissolved and an equal quantity of dextrine, filtering if necessary. 28 grams of silver nitrate are to be dissolved in a small quantity of water and added by degrees at intervals. Complete solution readily takes place. Although the liquid contains less than 1% of metallic silver it appears absolutely black, when diluted, red, by great dilution yellowish. With some specimens of dextrine the solution remains clear, with others it soon becomes a little turbid.

Perhaps the most interesting reaction which this solution shows, is that with disodic phosphate. A little phosphate is sufficient to throw down the whole of the silver although both solutions are alkaline. When a gram of phosphate in solution is added to 100 cc of silver solution the color becomes bright red, sometimes scarlet, and the whole of the silver is presently on the filter has precipitated. This precipitate on the filter has a color like that of ruby copper, which color it retains during the first washing, but after a few hours washing with distilled water the color changes to a deep Nile green and at the same time it becomes slightly soluble, giving a port wine colored solution. With more washing this solubility may disappear.

It is a general fact that all these forms of silver, however various their color, have both a body and a surface color and these two colors tend always to be complementary. The body color is that shown by the precipitate while still moist; it is also visible when a thin coat is brushed over paper, a coat so thin that light passes through it, is reflected by the paper and returned again through the film. But when a thick and opaque film is applied, the body color disappears and only the complementary surface is visible...

Allotropic Silver obtained with Tannin and alkaline Carbonates

Tannin (gallotannic acid) in alkaline solution reduces silver nitrate to metallic silver in the allotropic form. Tannin acts more strongly than dextrine and therefore does best with carbonated alkali, dextrine best with alkaline hydroxide, although either substance will produce the reation with either form of alkali and, though less advantageously, with ammonia. Tannin with sodium carbonate gives a very perfect solution of silver, quite free from the turbidity that is apt to characterize the dextrine solution. The color of this solution is likewise very intense: one containing 1% of silver is quite black, by dilution deep yellowish red. It has very much the same characteristics as the preceding, bt is rather more stable. To obtain it, 24 grams of dry sodium carbonate may be dissolved in 1200 cc of water. A 4% solution of tannin is to be made and filtered, of this 72 cc are to be added to the solution just named; of silver nitrate, 24 grams dissolved in a little water are to be added by degrees. Solution takes place almost instantly as each successive portion is added. The solution after standing a day or two may be decanted or filtered from a small quantity of black precipitate.

When the solution is treated with a very dilute acid, as for example, nitric acid diluted with 20 volumes of water, allotropic silver is precipitated in the solid form. It dries with a brilliant metallic surface color of a shade different from the foregoing and somewhat dificult to exactly characterize, a sort of bluish-steel gray.

I do not find that blue allotropic ( in which is included the green and steel-gray varieties) can be reduced to any one definite type. On the contrary, its variations are endless. Slight differences in the conditions under which the solutions are formed or in the mode of precipitation give quite different products. For example, of ten products obtained give quite different products. For example, of ten products obtained with tannin and sodium carbonate in different proportions, several were easily and completely soluble in ammonia, some were slightly soluble and some not at all. Some specimens not at all soluble in water become so by moistening with dilute phosphoric acid: they did not dissolve in the acid but when it was removed they had beceome soluble in water. On other specimens phosphoric acid had no such effect. Some solutions are scarcely affected by acetic, others are partly precipitated, others almost but not quite wholly. The films spread on paper vary very much in their relations to light; some are readily converted into the yellow intermediate form, whilst others are very insensitive. The least sensitive specimens seemed to be those for which dilute nitric acid had been used as a precipitant. They had a steel-gray color. Precipitation by acetic acid seems to tend to a greenish metallic surface color and greater sensitiveness. Different specimens also vary very much as to permanency; this character is also affected by the amount of washing received: thorough washing tends to permanency.

In some ways the blue, gray and green forms seem more closely related to the black or dark gray forms of normal silver, for they tend in time to pass into them, while on the contrary,  gold-colored silver, if pure, tends with time to change to bright white normal silver on the surface, with dark or even black silver underneath.

Action of other Carbonates

Tannin is capable of producing allotropic silver, not only in the presence of the arbonates of potassium and sodium, but also with those of lithium and ammonia and also with the carbonates of calcium, magnesium, barium and strontium. The action of the last named carbonate has been more particularly examined. it yields allotropic silver of a dark red color while moist, drying with a rich bluish green metallic surface color in thick films, in very thin films transparent red. It is probable that the substances with which tannin produces these reactions would be further reduced by investigation...

Nature of the " intermediate substance"

It has been mentioned in previous papers that when allotropic silver is converted into normal silver by the action of heat it passes through a perfectly well marked intermediate state. In this state it retains the gold-yellow color and high luster but none of the other properties of the original form. Oxidizing and chlorizing agents show nearly the same indifference as with ordinary silver. While other allotropic silver is soft and easily reduced to powder the intermediate substnace is hard and tough. When a glass rod is drawn over a film of allotropic silver it leaves behind it a white trace of ordinary silver. The intermediate substance shows no such reaction: the trace of a glass rod does not differ from the rest of the film and even hard burnishing produces no change in the color. Continued exposure to sublight brings about the same alteration to the intermediate form and it takes place spontaneously with time.

At that time no explanation could be found as to the nature of the change. It proves however to be a passage into a crystalline form. Some films spread on paper were exposed to the action of a very dilute solution of ferric chloride. It chanced that one of these films had undergone a partial change into the intermediate; the unchanged portion was darkened by the ferric solution, while the portion that had passed into the intermediate form retained its bright gold-yellow color and luster rendering it thus distinguishable. The figures which it exhibited were strikingly crystaline. One portion showed a foliated struture such as if formed by interpenetrating crystals, other parts showed ramifications, with something of a plant-like form. Another part exhibited a sheaf of acicular cystals nearly parallel in direction, half an inch to an inch long and fine as hairs...

This change to the crystaline condition does not seem to be peculiar to gold-colored silver...
The stable "intermediate form" of silver (i-Ag) is easy to prepare. It occurs as bright gold-yellow or green crystals with a metallic luster. Treatment with a very dilute solution of ferric chloride will enhance the appearance of its foliar structure, interpenetrating with plant-like ramifications, or fine acicular crystals up to 1 inch long.

Intermediate silver is hard, tough, and unaffected by pressure. It is nearly as indifferent to oxidizing and chlorizing agents as is normal silver. Intermediate silver can be formed from the allotropic varieties by light, heat, or chemical action. The simplest preparation is as follows:

"...It is a little curious that its permanency seems to depend entirely on details in the mode of preparation. I have found many ways of obtaining it, but in a few months the specimens preserved changed spontaneously, to normal silver. This happened even in well closed tubes. The normal silver produced in this way is exquisitely beautiful. It has a pure and perfect white color like the finest frosted jewelers' silver, almost in fact exceeding the jeweler's best products. I found, however, one process by which a quite permanent result could be obtained...

In forming the blue product which I have called A, very concentrated solutions were necessary. C on the contrary is best obtained from very dilute ones. The following proportions give good results:

Two mixtures are required: No. 1 containing 200 cc of a 10% solution of silver nitrate, 200 cc of 20% solution of Rochelle Salt [Sodium potassium tartrate] and 800 cc of distilled water. No. 2, containing 107 cc of a 30% solution of ferrous sulfate, 200 cc of a 20% solution of Rochelle salt and 800 cc of distilled water. The second solution (which must be mixed immediately before using only) is poured into the first with constant stirring. A powder, at first glittering red, then changing back to black, falls, which on the filter has a beautiful bronze appearance. After washing it should be removed whilst in a pasty condition and spread over watch glasses or flat basins and allowed to dry spontaneously. It will be seen that this is a reduction of silver nitrate by ferrous sulfate. The metallic silver formed by reduction with ferrous citrate and ferrous tartrate is in an allotropic condition; with ferrous oxalate this result does not seem to be produced.

Although the gold-colored silver (into which the nitrate used is wholly converted) is very permanent when dry, it is less so when wet. In washing, the filter must be kept always full of water; this is essential. It dries into lumps exactly resembling highly polished gold... By brushing a thick paste of this substance evenly over clean glass, beautiful cold-colored mirrors are obtained; the film seems to be entirely continuous and the mirror is very perfect.

By continuous washing the precipitate changes somewhat, so that in drying it takes on a coppery rather than a golden color, and is rather less lustrous, though still bright and brilliant...


Art. XX -- On Gold-Colored Allotropic Silver ( Part I )

Reactions --

The most characteristic reactions of gold-colored allotropic silver are those with the strong acids. When normal silver reduced with milk sugar and alkaline hydroxide is left in contact with strong hydrochloric acid even for several hours there is no action, and the silver after thorough washing dissolves in warm dilute nitric acid without residue. With allotropic silver similarly treated chloride is always formed. But strong hydrochloric acid instantly converts allotropic to ordinary silver and consequently only atrace of chloride is produced. By largely diluting the acid the conversion is retraded and the proportion of chloride is greatly increased. Thus for example when ordinary hydrochloric acid is diluted with 50 times its volume of water and is made to act on allotropic silver, about one-third is converted to chloride. Probably the whole would be but for the simultaneous conversion to normal silver. This double action is curious and strongly differentiates allotropic from ordinary silver. Even with the same acid diluted with 100 volumes of water, there is a gradual but complete conversion to white silver accompanied by the production of a not inconsiderable quantity of silver chloride.

Neutral chlorides also act strongly upon allotropic silver even when much diluted...

Sulfuric acid diluted with 50 volumes of water has no action upon n ormal silver. It quickly converts allotropic silver to normal but at the same time dissolves a little of it...

Ammonia seems to be without a converting action but dissolves a trace. It will be shown in a future paper that there exists a form of allotropic silver abundantly soluble in ammonia...

Intermediate Form

Allotropic silver presents itself in an almost endless variety of forms and colors... Most of these varieties seem to be capable of existing in two conditions, of which one is more active than the other.

If we coat a chemically clean glass plate with a film of gold-colored allotropic silver, let it dry, first in the air, then for an hour or two in a stove at 100 C, and then heat the middle of the plate carefully over a spirit lamp, we shall obtain with sufficient heat a circle of whitish gray with a bright, lustrous golden ring round it, somewhat lighter and brighter than the portion of the plate that has not been changed by heat. This ring consists of what I propose to call the "intermediate form".

With sulfuric acid diluted with four times its bulk of water and allowed to cool, an immersion of one or two seconds converts a film on glass or on pure paper wholly to the intermediate form...

Its properties are better seen by using a film formed on pure paper, one end of which is heated over a spirit lamp to a temperature just below that at which paper scorches. The change is sudden and passes over the heated portion like a flash. Examining the changed part, we find :

1st. That it has changed from a deep gold to a bright yellow gold color.

2nd. When subjected to a shearing stress it does not whiten or change color in the slightest degree.

3rd. It is much harder, as is readily perceived in burnishing it.

4th. It no longer shows the color reaction with potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride, changing only by a slight deepening of color.

Of these characteristic changes the second is the most remarkable. The gold-colored silver in its original condition changes with singular facility to white silver; almost any touch, any friction or pressure effects the conversion... Heat effects the same change but with an intermediate stage at which pressure no longer produces any action.

The intermediate form is distinguished from normal silver almost solely by its bright yellow color and its higher luster. This last difference is very striking when a film on glass is heated in the same manner as above. The central parts in changing to white silver become wholly lusterless, while the circle of intermediate retains all its original luster. Its continuity is so complete, that if viewed through glass, it still acts as a mirror.

This change may be either molecular or depend on dehydration.

The latter seems doubtful for the change cannot be brought about by dessication...




Adept Alchemy 

Part I 

Ars Magna 

Chapter 2

The Short Dry Path


saved here





Adept Alchemy

Part II

Modern Arcana

Chapter 6

Transmutation of Hydrogen


(1) W. Ramsay, et al.
(2) References

(1)    William Ramsay, et al.

    Dozens of scientific papers were published between 1905 and 1927 concerning the mysterious appearance of hydrogen, helium and neon in vacuum tubes. The matter has not been resolved.

    The first such report, written by Clarence Skinner, was published in The Physical Review in July 1905:

    "While making an experimental study of the cathode fall of various metals in helium it was observed that no matter how carefully the gas was purified the hydrogen radiation, tested spectroscopically, persistently appeared in the cathode glow..."

    Skinner eventually located its source in the cathode. (26)

    In 1912, Sir William Ramsay reported "The Presence of Helium in the Gas from the Interior of an X-Ray Tube", and J.J. Thomson published an article "On the Appearance of Helium and Neon in Vacuum Tubes" in 1913. Thomson was investigating a new gas called X3 (atomic weight 3: tritium), a polymerized form of hydrogen. He used the positive ray method to detect the helium and neon because it is more sensitive than spectral analysis and provides much more definite data. There was no apparent connection between the type of gas used to fill the tubes and the appearance of the new gases (X3 line 3 in H, N, He, O, and air; Ne line 20 in H, N, O, HCl, and air). Another line often appeared corresponding to atomic weight 10; it is probably due to neon with two charges of electricity, but brighter than expected. (22, 23, 29, 30)

    The experimental apparatus was a large glass bulb fitted with aluminum electrodes; the discharge was produced by an induction coil. Thomson described it as follows:

    "The positive rays for the analysis of the gases were produced in a vessel containing gases at a low pressure. I shall call this the testing vessel; the vessel in which the various processes for generating X3, were tried (the experimenting chamber) was sealed on to the testing vessel, but separated from it by a tap. Thus the pressure in the experimenting chamber was not restricted to being the same as that in the testing vessel, but might have the value which seemed most appropriate for any particular type of experiment. After these experiments were over, the tap was turned and some of the gas from the experimenting chamber let into the testing vessel; a photograph was then taken, and by comparing it with one taken before turning on the tap the new gases present in the experiment chamber could be detected."

    Thomson finally determined that the gases were being occluded by the electrodes. He concluded:

    "These gases are present in the metal independently of the bombardment, and are liberated by the action of the kathode rays.

    "I would also like to direct attention to the analogy between the effects just described and an everyday experience with discharge tubes --- I mean the difficulty of getting these tubes free from hydrogen when the test is made by a sensitive method like that of the positive rays. Though you may heat the glass of the tube to melting point, may dry the gases by liquid air or cooled charcoal, and free the gases you let into the tube as carefully as you will from hydrogen, you will still get the hydrogen lines by the positive ray method, even when the bulb has been running several hours a day for nearly a year. The only exception is when oxygen is kept continuously running through the tube, and this, I think, is due, not to lack of liberation of hydrogen, but to the oxygen combining with the small quantity of hydrogen liberated, just as it combines with the mercury vapor and causes the disappearance of the mercury lines. I think this production of hydrogen in the tube is quite analogous to the production of X3, of helium, and of neon." (31)

    Prof. N.J. Collie and H. Patterson conducted the early stages of their work independently and from different points of view. They began collaborating when they learned they were getting the same results. Patterson was interested in the pure physics of the electron, and had developed a hypothesis that "by doubling the electrical charge on hydrogen atoms, it might be possible to convert this into an a particle, and so into helium." He got neon instead. The experimenters took all due precautions against error, yet they repeatedly obtained traces of helium and neon. The tubes were surrounded by an exterior vessel which was evacuated, or contained neon or helium; the same results were obtained. In one such experiment, Prof. Collie tested the vacuum-evacuated exterior vessel and found helium with neon. Patterson replicated the experiment, and then repeated it with an oxygen atmosphere in the exterior tube. Neon was found therein. It appeared that neon was formed by a union of helium and oxygen. They also performed numerous blank experiments to exclude the possibility of contamination from various sources. (4, 9, 21)

    R.J. Strutt and other workers found no helium in their experiments. (11, 15, 27)

    In 1914, Collie reported his "Attempts to Produce the Rare Gases by Electric Discharge." Finely powdered, heated uranium was placed in a cathode discharge bombardment tube; the equipment was carefully purged in several ways. 1-2 hours of electrical treatment yielded traces of helium and neon in 11 experiments. Collie concluded:

    "If the neon and helium found were due to an air leak, it is difficult to account for the disappearance of the argon, which should have been present to the extent of one thousand times as much as the neon and helium found. The amount of argon present, however, was too little to be measured, as it made no difference in the volume of neon and helium... The presence of the nitrogen is probably due to a nitride of uranium... That comparatively large amounts of neon and helium should come off from uranium by bombardment with the cathode rays, and not by heating, is a matter of interest; also that in one experiment a change of coil should affect the result is an observation that must if possible be repeated...

    "That the presence of neon and helium in vacuum tubes, after the electric discharge has been passed, is due to an air leak seems most improbable. Where the gases come from has yet to be proved. They have been found by Sir J.J. Thomson, by Sir William Ramsay, by Mr. G. Winchester, and by the author [J. N. Collie], Mr. Hubert S. Patterson, and Mr. Irvine Masson... Whatever the source may be, it is only by further experiments that the question will be resolved..."

    Collie, Patterson, and Masson described the electrical circuit, discharge tubes and testing apparatus, precautions and controls, bombardment experiments, results, and possible sources of the gases in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (1914).

    "The coils gave 12-inch sparks with either a mercury or a hammer interrupter. The nature of the break has some influence on the result of the experiment; in the case of a mercury break, better results were obtained with a rectifier. The current in the secondary circuit averaged a few millamperes. The form of the discharge tubes varied from simple spectrum bulbs with disc electrodes to elaborate jacketed designs. The gases employed were generated by chemical and electrical methods and were tested for purity." (7)

    The testing apparatus was either directly connected to the discharge tube, or the gases were transferred by means of an inverted siphon over mercury after being pumped from the reaction vessel. Hydrogen was removed by exploding it with oxygen in a burette or in the collection tube, which had platinum wires sealed in it. In some designs, the hydrogen was removed by copper oxide and phosphorus pentoxide. Oxygen and moisture were removed by cooled charcoal, liquid air, and Na-K alloy. The He and Ne were collected in a fine capillary tube with a fine platinum wire sealed through the top:

    "It is found that the minimum quantity of neon detectable probably equals that contained in a few cubic millimeters of atmospheric air. If, owing to defective working, the neon actually was atmospheric, the accompanying argon would be very easily seen (as the ratio Ar:Ne in air is about 700:1) when the particular method used was such as might have eliminated nitrogen beforehand; in the apparatus depicted, nitrogen naturally made its presence at once evident if a very small part of a cubic millimeter of air was present... In many of the experiments, the total volume of gas used was so small that even if it had been all atmospheric air, it could not have accounted for the quantities of the neon, and still less for those of the helium, which were obtained... We wish to point out that a great many of our experiments have yielded negative results, for as yet unexplained reasons."

    The electrodes were made of Pd, Cu, Pb, Tl, Li, Na, K, Al, and Mg. Some bombardment experiments were conducted with anti-cathodes of Pt, Tl, U, KF, KCl, KI, RbCl, Cs2CO3, CaO, and BeO. (14)

    Besides the several precautions against air-leaks, Collie, et al., tested for nitrogen; The ratio of N2:Ne in air is about 80,000:1; therefore:

    "If the Ne detected in an experiment came from air, the nitrogen accompanying it would be found in relatively overwhelming quantity...

    "If atmospheric contamination occurs at any point after the run, nitrogen must infallibly be detected during the examination. If any contamination occurs before the run, it would likewise instantly be made manifest on the first passage of the discharge through the experimental tube. It is only when an infinitesimally slow leak goes on during the run that it is possible that no nitrogen could be seen at any time; and to provide against this contingency an additional control is necessary, namely the absence of argon from the gas... The argon test is in reality superfluously delicate as a control; nevertheless it was used.

    "In all experiments where helium was the chief product, atmospheric contamination is ipso facto excluded... contamination seems to be thoroughly excluded in all the experiments."

    Two hypotheses remained to explain the origin of the He and Ne: permeation through the walls of the tubes, and previous occlusion from them. Since positive results were obtained with electrodeless tubes, the electrodes can be eliminated as a source. In addition, when Al and other metals were melted in vacuo, no gases were occluded, but did so when the metals were bombarded; no He pre-existed in the metals. When Al was dissolved in KOH solution, no He or Ne was liberated. Melting the glass tubes in vacuo yielded no He or Ne. Two specimens of old glass (one Egyptian, approximately 1500 years old; another, Kien-lung Chinese) were examined; neither yielded He or Ne.

    The authors closed their report with this note:

    "We have endeavored to put the facts of the case as fully as possible, without reference to any preconceived theory. It is not our view that our experiments rigidly exclude all the possibilities which have been mentioned; but it is evident that the trend of the results is toward conclusions which, if they turn out to be true, would be of very obvious importance."

    The issue then lay dormant for several years, but research was resumed after World War One. In 1926, Prof. Fritz Paneth and Dr. K. Peters determined that palladium had effected the transmutation of hydrogen to helium in their experiments. Paneth and Peters absorbed H in colloidal Pd (sponge, black, or palladinised charcoal) for 12 hours, after which time they detected the main spectral lines of He. No He production was observed with Pd preparations that had not absorbed hydrogen. Preparations of Pd stored at room temperature should therefore produce He; this was found to be the case. After the He had been removed, the sample was stored again, then examined; more helium was obtained. The experiment was repeated three times with the same results. (17-20)

    The authors excluded all the possible sources of error in their experiments, such as the ingress of atmospheric He, absorption in glass or electrodes, preferential absorption of He by Pd, and the possibility of He being formed as a product of radioactive disintegration of Pd. No trace was detected of any energy liberated during the transformation, either as heat or radiation.

    It would seem worthwhile and desirable to replicate these experiments with modern equipment and techniques.

(2)    References

1. Allison, S.K. & Harkins, William D.: J. American Chemistry Society 464: 814-824 (April 1924); "The Absence of Helium from the Gases left after the Passage of Electrical Discharges..."

2. Baly, E.C.: Ann. Reports on the Progress of Chemistry for 1914, Vol. II: 41-49 (1914); "Electric Discharge"; ibid., 1920, Vol. 17: 28-35 (1920); "Atomic Theory"

3. Baskerville, Charles: Popular Science Monthly 72 (2): 46-51 (Jan. 1908); "RecentTransmutations"

4. Collie, John N.:& Ramsay, William: Proceedings Royal Society London 59: 257-270, 356 (3 Feb. 1896);"On the Behavior of Argon & Helium..."

5. Collie, J.N. & Patterson, Hubert S.: Proc. Chemical Soc. 29 (410): 22, 23 (6 Feb. 1913); "The Presence of Ne in H..."; ibid., 29 (417): 217-221 (19 June 1913); Part II, "The Presence of Ne in H..."

6. Collie, J.N.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 90-A (621): 554-556; "Note on the Paper by T.R. Merton..."

7. Collie, J.N., et al.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 91-A (623): 30-45 (2 November 1914); "The Production of Neon & Helium by the Electrical Discharge"

8. Collie, J.N., & Patterson, H.: Chem. Soc. Trans. 103: 419 (1913)

9. Collie, J.N., & Patterson, H.: Chem. Soc. Proc. 29: 271 (1913)

10. Davis, Watson: Current History 25 (3): 393, 394 (Dec. 1926)

11. Egerton, A.C.G.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 91-A (627): 180-189 (1 March 1915); "The Analysis of Gases after Passage of Electric Discharge"

12. Harkins, William D. & Wilson, Ernest F.: The London, Edinburgh & Dublin Philosophical Magazine & Journal of Science 30 (179): 723-734 (Nov. 1915)

13. Hirshberg, L. K.: Harper's Weekly 57 (2938): 21 (12 April 1913); "Transmutation Explained Away"

14. Masson, Irvine: Proc. Chem. Soc. 29 (417): 233 (19 June 1913); "The Occurrence of Neon…”

15. Merton, Thomas R.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 90-A (621): 549-553 (1 August 1914); "Attempts to Produce the Rare Gases by Electric Discharge"

16. Nature 90 (2259): 653, 654 (13 Feb. 1913); "Origins of Helium & Neon"; ibid., 118 (2971): 526, 527 (9 Oct. 1926); "The Reported Conversion of Hydrogen into Helium"

17. Paneth, Fritz: Science 64 (1661): 409-417 (8 Oct. 1926); "Ancient & Modern Alchemy"

18. Paneth, F.: Nature 119 (3002): 706, 707 (14 May 1927); "The Transmutation of Hydrogen into Neon"

19. Paneth, F. & Peters, K.: Ber. d. DeutschenChem. Ges. 59: 2039 (1926)

20. Paneth, F.: Ber. d. Deutschen Chem. Ges. 60: 808 (1927)

21. Patterson, H.S.: Chemical Society Proceedings (1913), p. 233.

22. Ramsay, William: Nature 89 (2229): 502 (18 July 1912); "Experiments with Cathode Rays"

23. Ramsay, W.: Proc. Chem. Soc. 29 (410): 21, 22 (6 Feb. 1913)

24. Riding, R.W. & Baly, E.C.C: Proc. Royal Soc. London 109-A (749): 186-193 (1 Sept. 1925)

25. Scientific American Supplement 75 (1940): 150 (8 March 1913); "The Birth of the Atom"

26. Skinner, Clarence A.: Physical Review 21 (1): 1-15 (July 1905); "The Evolution of Hydrogen…”

27. Strutt, R.J.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 89-A (613): 499-506 (2 Feb. 1914); "Attempts to Observe the Production of Neon or Helium by Electric Discharge"

28. Sullivan, J.W.N.: Scientific American 108 (10): 226 (8 March 1913)

29. Thomson, J.J.: Nature 90 (2259): 645-647 (13 Feb. 1913); "On the Appearance of Helium & Neon in Vacuum Tubes"; Reprinted in Science 37 (949): 360-364 (7 March 1913) & Scientific American Supplement 75 (1940): 150 (8 March 1913)

30. Thomson, J.J.: Nature 91 (2774): 333-337 (29 May 1913); "Further Applications... of Positive Rays"

31. Thomson, J.J.: Proc. Royal Soc. London 101-A (711): 290-299 (1 July 1922)

32. Tolman, Richard C.: Journal American Chemical Society 44 (9): 1902-1908 (Sept. 1922); "Thermodynamic Treatment of the Possible Formation of Helium from Hydrogen"

33. Walden, Paul: Science 66 (1714): 407-417 (4 Nov. 1927); "What can the Modern Chemist Learn from the Old Alchemy?"

34. Winchester, George: Physical Review 3 (4): 287-294 (April 1914); "On the Continued Appearance of Gases in Vacuum Tubes"






Alchemy & Transmutation


» AGRICOLA: Treatise on Gold
» ANONYMOUS: Æsch Mezareph
» ANON.: Arcana Divina
» ANON.: The Book of Alze
» ANON.: Cabala Mineralis  [ ZIP ]
» ANON.: The Crowning of Nature  [ ZIP ]
» ANON.: Glory of the World
» ANON.: Hermetic Arcanum
» ANON. : Hydropyrographum Hermeticum
» ANON.: On the Philadelphian Gold
» ANON.: Liber Patris Sapientiae
» ANON.: On the Philosophers' Stone
» ANON.: The Tomb of Semiramus
» ANON.: A Tract of Great Price
» ANON.: Turba Philosophorum
» ANON. : Praxis Spagyrica Philosophica
» ANON.: Verses
» ANON.: A Magnificent & Select Tract on Philosophical Water
» ARATA, Yoshiaki / ZHANG, Yue : Cold Fusion
» ARISTEUS: Words to Aristeus' Son
» ARTEPHIUS: The Secret Book of Artephius
» ASCLEPIUS : A Treatise On Initiations
»  ASHMOLE, Elias : Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum ~ ( PDF, 29 MB )
» ATWOOD, Mary Anne: Hermetic Philosophy & Alchemy  [ ZIP ]
» AURACH, George: Donum Dei  [ ZIP ]

» BACON, Francis: The Making of Gold
» BACON, F.: Experiments Touching Sulphur & Mercury
» BACON, Roger: Tract on the Tincture and Oil of Antimony
» BACON, R.: Mirror of Alchemy
» BACON, R.: The Root of the World
» BACSTROM, Sigismond: Rosicrucian Aphorisms and Process
» BACSTROM, S.: Lapis de Tribus
» BARCHUSEN, Johannes : Le Traite Symbolique de la Pierre Philosophale  [ ZIP ]
»  BARRETT, Francis : Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers ~ ( PDF, 27 MB )
» BECHER, John J.: Magnalia Naturae
» BERTHELOT, Marcelin: Origines de l'Alchimie
» BERTHELOT, M. : Collection des Alchimistes Grecs ( Vol. 1 )
» BERTHELOT, M. : Collection des Alchimistes Grecs ( Vol. 2/3 )

» BEUTHER, David: The Transmutation of Base Metals Into Silver and Gold  [ ZIP ]
» BLOOMFIELD, William: Bloomfield's Blossoms
BONUS, Petrus: The New Pearl of Great Price  [ ZIP ]

» BOUTARD, Louis : Aether Technologies
BRENT, Robert : Golden Book of Chemical Experiments

» CARO, Roger: The Great Work Photographed  [ ZIP ]

» CARO, R.: Concordances Alchemique (B. Trevisan: The Allegory of the Fountain )  [ ZIP ]
» CHAMPION, Joe : Transmutations
» Chinese Alchemy ( I : Ko Hung ) ( II : Chang Po-Tuan ) ( III : Ch. Po-Tuan )
» CIBINENSIS, Melchior: Alchemical Mass
» COCKREN, Archibald: Alchemy Rediscovered & Restored  [ ZIP ]
» COUNCELL, J.W.: A Restatement of Alchemy
» CREMER: The Testament of Cremer
» CROSSE, Andrew: Abiogenesis of Acari  [ ZIP ]
» CYLIANI: Hermes Revealed

» DEE, John: Rosicrucian Secrets
» DEE, J. : Hieroglyphic Monad  (PDF)
» DELPHINUS, Nicholas B.: The Book of Lambspring  [ ZIP ]
D'ESPAGNET, Jean : The Hermetic Arcanum
» DUCHESNES, Joseph (Quercetanus): Collected Works  [ ZIP ]
» DUNSTAN : Philosophia Maturata
» DUNSTAN : Of the Stone of the Philosophers...

» ELEAZAR, Rabbi Abraham: The Book of Abraham the Jew  [ ZIP ]
» ESPAGNET, Jean: The Hermetic Arcanum
» EUDOXUS: The Six Keys

» FERGUSON, John : Bibliotheca Chemica
» FICINUS, Marsilius: Book of the Chemical Art
» FIGULUS: A Golden and Blessed Casket of Nature's Marvels  [ ZIP ]
» FLAMEL, Nicholas: The Summary of Philosophy
» FLAMEL, N.: The Hieroglyphics of Flamel  [ ZIP ]
» FLAMEL, N.: Testament
» FLEISCHER, J.: Chemical Moonshine
» FREHER: Process

» GASCHLER, Alois: Transmutations of U & Hg
» GEBER: Of the Investigation or Search of Perfection
» GEBER : The Works of Geber (PDF)
» ST. GERMAIN, Comte de : The Most Holy Trinosophia  [ ZIP ]
» GOLDFEIN, Solomon: Biological Transmutation  [ ZIP ]
» GRATACOLLE, William: Names of the Philosophers' Stone
» GRUMMET, Christopher: Sanguis Naturae
» GUALDUS, Friederich: The Revelation of the True Chemical Wisdom

»  HARTMANN, Franz : Paracelsus ~ ( PDF, 15.6 MB )
» HASOLLE, James : Fasciculus Chemicus ( Chymical Collections )
» HELMONT, Franciscus M. van: 153 Chymical Aphorisms
» HELVETIUS, John : The Golden Calf
» HERMES: Emerald Tablet
» HERMES TRISMEGISTUS: The Divine Poemander (Corpus Hermeticum)
» HERMES TRISMEGISTUS : Corpus Hermeticum ( II )
» HERMES TRISMEGISTUS: The Virgin of the World [ ZIP ]
  HILLYER, Robert : Alchemy, A Symphonic Poem ~ ( PDF, 2 B )
»  HITCHCOCK, E. A. : Remarks Upon Alchemy & The Alchemists ~ ( PDF, 15 MB )
» HOLLANDUS, Johan I.: A Work of Saturn
» HOLLANDUS, J.I.: Opus Alchimica
» HOLLANDUS, J.I.: The Hand of the Philosophers  [ ZIP ]
» HOLLANDUS, J. I.: The Philosophers' Stone
» HORTULANUS: Commentary on the Smaragdine Tablet
» HUDSON, David: ORME Patent  [ ZIP ]

» INGALESE, Richard: They Made the Philosophers' Stone

» JENKINS : Nuclear Decay Rates & Earth-Sun Distance
» JOLLIVET-CASTELLOT, Francois: Le Grande Oeuvre Alchimique (PDF)
» JOLLIVET-CASTELOT, F.: Traite de Hermetisme et D'Art Spagyrique (Azoth) (PDF)
»  JOLLIVET-CASTELLOT, F.: Comment on Deviante Alchemiste ~ ( PDF, 17 MB )
» JOVITSCHISCH, Milorad: Transmutation of C to O
» JONSON, Ben : The Alchemist

» KALID: Secreta Alchymiae
» KELLY, Edward: Stone of the Philosophers
» KERVRAN, Louis: Biological Transmutation and Modern Physics  [ ZIP ]
» KIRCHWEGER, Anton: The Golden Chain of Homer
» KO HUNG : On the Gold Medicine

» LACINIUS, Giovanni: Summary of the Rosarium of Villa Nova

» MACKAY, Charles: Memoirs of Popular Delusions (Book I, Alchemy)
» MAGNUS, Albertus: Compound of Compounds
» MAIER, Michael: A Subtle Allegory Concerning the Secrets of Alchemy
» MAIER, M. : Arcana Arcanissima
» MEAD, G.R.S. : The Hymns of Hermes ( PDF )
  MEAD, G.R.S. : Thrice-Greatest Hermes -- Vol. 1 ( PDF )
»  MEAD, G.R.S. : Thrice-Greatest Hermes -- Vol. 2 ( PDF )

»  MEAD, G.R.S. : Thrice-Greatest Hermes -- Vol. 3 ( PDF )

MELLOR, J. : Arsenic ~ Excerpts from
Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic & Theoretical Chemistry ( Vol. 9 )
» MERCER, J.E. : Alchemy - Its Science & Romance ~ ( PDF, 4 MB )
» MEUNG, Jean de: The Remonstrance of Nature
» MITRAS, Antron : Zoroaster's Cave
» MORAY, Thomas: Transmutation of Ore  [ ZIP1 ] [ ZIP2 ]
» MORIENUS: The Book of Morienus
» MUIR, M.M.P. : The Story of Alchemy & the Beginnings of Chemistry  [ ZIP ]
» MYSTAGOGUS, Cleidophorus: Immortal Dissolvent

» NELSON, Robert: Adept Alchemy ~ The Philosophers' Stone via the Short/Dry/Royal Path with Arsenic/Gur, plus: 20th Century Transmutations of Ag to Au (Jollivet-Castellot, Fulcanelli, Tiffereau, &c.), Transmutations of Carbon (Kushi, Jovitschisch, &c), Transmutations of Ores (Moray, &c.), Transmutation of W to He (Wendt & Irion), Transmutation of Pb to Hg (Smits & Karssen), Transmutation of H to He & Ne (Ramsay, et al.), Transmutations of Hg to Au (Miethe, Nagaoka, &c), Biological Transmutations (Kervran, &c.), &c; Cold Fusion (Pons & Fleischman, &c), Transmutation of Nuclear Waste, esoterica & miscellanies.  [ ZIP ]

» NELSON, Robert: The Alchemists ~ 1675: Rogue monk Wenzel Seyler found the Philosophers' Stone in the ruins of a medieval chapel at St. Thomas' Monastery (Bruna, Moravia). He made gold for Emperor Leopold Habsburg, became a baron and Master of the Mint, and he survived his enemies and his depravity with the help of one true friend, Francis Preyhausen. Closely based on a True Story. ( See also: BECHER )
[ ZIP ]

» Nanoparticle Gold / Silver Preparation Patents
» NEEDHAM, Joseph: Theoretical Background of Elixir Alchemy
» NELSON, R.: Transmutations of Nuclear Waste
» NOLLIUS, Henry: The Chemists Key
» NORTON, Thomas: The Ordinall of Alchemy  [ ZIP ]
» NOWELL, Edward: Certain Chemical Works, with the True Practice

» OHSAWA : Transmutation of C + O => Fe
» OSBURN, Lynn: Chinese Alchemy

» PARACELSUS, Theophrastus: Catechism of Alchemy
» PARACELSUS, T.: Coelum Philosophorum
» PARACELSUS, T.: Tincture of the Philosophers
» PARACELSUS, T.: Treasure of Treasures
» PARACELSUS, T.: Aurora of the Philosophers
» PARACELSUS, T.: Prognostications  [ ZIP ]
» PARACELSUS, T.: The Book of the Revelations of Hermes Concerning the Supreme Secret of the World
» PEARCE (The Black Monke): On The Philosophers' Stone
» PERNETY, Antoine-J. : A Treatise on the Great Art
» PHILALETHES, Eirenaeus: An Open Entrance to the Closed Palace of the King
» PHILALETHES, Eir.: Brief Guide to the Celestial Ruby
» PHILALETHES, Eir.: Metamorphosis of Metals
» PHILALETHES, Eir.: Ripley Revived  [ ZIP ]
» PHILALETHES, Eir.: A Short Manuduction to the Coelestial Ruby
» PHILALETHES, Eir.: The Fountain of Chymical Philosophy
» PHILALETHES, Eugenius: A Short Inquiry Concerning the Hermetic Art
» PONTANUS: Epistle on the Philosophical Fire

» READ, John : From Alchemy to Chemistry
» REDGROVE, H. Stanley: Alchemy Ancient and Modern  [ ZIP ]
REDGROVE, H. Stanley: Alchemy Ancient and Modern ( PDF )
» REGARDIE, Israel: The Philosophers' Stone ( PDF )

» RIPLEY, Sir George: Bosom Book
» RIPLEY, G.: Medulla Alchymiae
» RIPLEY, G.: Mistery of the Alchymists
» RIPLEY, G.: A Short Work...
» RIPLEY, G.: Epistle to King Henry IV
» RIPLEY, G.: Epistle Unfolded
» RIPLEY, G.: Five Preparations of the Philosophers' Mercury
» RIPLEY, G.: Liber Secretisimus
» RIPLEY, G.: A Treatise of Mercury and the Philosophers' Stone
» RIPLEY, G.: Twelve Gates
» RIPLEY, G. : The Ripley Scroll ( 4 MB JPG )
» RIPLEY, G.: The Ripley Scroll  [ ZIP ]
» ROBINS, Hal : "Alchemia"
» ROSENKREUTZ, Christian: The Chemical Wedding
» RULANDUS, Martin: Lexicon of Alchemy  [ ZIP ]

» SALTZAL, Solinus: Fountain of Philosophic Salts
» SCOTUS, Michael: Curious Investigation Concerning the Nature of the Sun and Moon
» SEMIRAMUS: The Tomb of Semiramus
» SENDIVOGIUS, Michael: The New Chemical Light
» SENDIVOGIUS, M.: A Parable, or Enigma of the Sages
» SIEBMACHUS, Johannes: Water Stone of the Wise
  SILBERER, Herbert : The Hidden Symbolism of Alchemy ~ ( PDF, 2 MB )
SPRINK, Leon : Space Activator

STERNHALS, Johann: War of the Knights
ST.-DIDIER, Limojon de : The Hermetical Triumph ~ ( PDF, 7.3 MB )
SUCHTEN, Alexander von: Of Vulgar Antimony


» TANCKIUS: De Oleo Antimonii Tractatus
TAUSEND, Franz : Transmutations of Lead & Mercury to Gold

TOUSSAINT, Alexandre: The Hermetic Triumph

TOUSSAINT, A.: Letter to the True Disciples of Hermes

TREVISAN, Bernard: Allegory of the Fountain

TREVISAN, B.: Verbum Dismissum

  TREVISAN, Bernard : De Chymico Miraculo ~ Includes Dennis ZECHARIUS : Gallus de Codem ( PDF, 11 MB )
TRISMOSIN, Solomon : Splendor Solis ( PDF )
TRISMOSIN, Solomon: Splendor Solis  [ ZIP ]


» URBIGERUS: Aphorisms
» URBIGERUS: Circulatum Minus

» VALENTINE, Basil: The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony
» VALENTINE, B.: 12 Keys
  VALENTINE, Basil : Last Will & Testament ~ ( PDF, 34 MB )
» VAUGHAN, Thomas: Allegory of the Mountain
» VAUGHAN, T.: Coelum Terrae
» VAUGHAN, T.: Aula Lucis
» VAUGHAN, T.: Lumen de Lumine
» VAUGHAN, T.: Anthroposophia Theomagia
» VAUGHAN, Thomas : Anima Magica Abscondita
»  VIGNIER, Blaise de : A Discourse of Fire & Salt ~ ( PDF, 16 MB )
» VILLAIN, L. : Histoire Critique de Nicolas Flamel

» VILLANOVA: Rosarium Philosophorum  [ ZIP ]
» VILLA NOVA, Arnold de : Alchemical Treatise ~ Ashmole MS 1415, Bodleian Library.

» WAITE, Arthur E.: The Pictorial Symbols of Alchemy (PDF)
» WAITE, A.E. : The Hermetic Museum (PDF, 1 MB)
WAITE, A.E. : Lives of the Alchemystical Philosophers ( PDF, 19 MB )
»  WAITE, A.E. (Editor) : The Works of Thomas Vaughan ( Eugenius Philalethes) ~ ( PDF, 27 MB )
»  WAITE, A.E. : The Hermetic & Alchemical Writings of Paracelsus ~ ( PDF, 26 MB )

» ZOSIMOS: Allegory

» Adept Alchemy -- NELSON, Robert [  ZIP ]

» Abiogenesis of Acari -- CROSSE, Andrew
» Æsch Mezareph -- ANONYMOUS
» Alchemical Mass -- CIBINENSIS, Melchior
» Alchemical Treatise -- VILLA NOVA, Arnold de -- Ashmole MS 1415, Bodleian Library.
  Alchemy, A Symphonic Poem ~ HILLYER, Robert ( PDF, 2 B )
»  Alchemy - Its Science & Romance ~ MERCER, J.E. ( PDF, 4 MB )
» Alchemy Ancient and Modern -- REDGROVE, H. Stanley
Alchemy Rediscovered & Restored -- COCKREN, Archibald

» Allegory -- ZOSIMOS
» Allegory of the Fountain -- TREVISAN, Bernard
» Allegory of the Mountain -- VAUGHAN, Thomas
» Anima Magica Abscondita -- VAUGHAN, Thomas
» Anthroposophia Theomagia -- VAUGHAN, Thomas
» Aphorisms-- URBIGERUS
» Arcana Divina -- ANON.
» Aula Lucis -- VAUGHAN, Th.
» Aurora of the Philosophers -- PARACELSUS, T.

» Biological Transmutation -- GOLDFEIN, Solomon
» Biological Transmutation and Modern Physics -- KERVRAN, Louis
» Bloomfield's Blossoms -- BLOOMFIELD, William
» Book of Abraham the Jew -- ELEAZAR, Rabbi Abraham
» Book of Alze -- ANON.
» Book of the Chemical Art -- FICINUS, Marsilius
» Book of Lambspring --- DELPHINUS, Nicholas B.
» Book of Morienus -- MORIENUS
» Book of the Revelations of Hermes Concerning the Supreme Secret of the World -- PARACELSUS, T.
» Bosom Book -- RIPLEY, Sir George
» Brief Guide to the Celestial Ruby -- PHILALETHES, Eir.

» Cabala Mineralis -- ANONYMOUS
» Catechism of Alchemy -- PARACELSUS, Theophrastus
» Certain Chemical Works, with the True Practice -- NOWELL, Edward
» Chemical Moonshine -- FLEISCHER, Johan
» Chemical Wedding -- ROSENKREUTZ, Christian
» Chemists Key -- NOLLIUS, Henry
» Chinese Alchemy -- OSBURN, Lynn
» Chinese Alchemy ( I : Ko Hung ) ) ( II : Chang Po-Tuan )
» 153 Chymical Aphorisms -- HELMONT, Fr. van
» Circulatum Minus -- URBIGERUS
» Coelum Philosophorum -- PARACELSUS, T.
» Coelum Terrae -- VAUGHAN, Th.
» Collected Works -- DUCHESNES, Joseph (Quercetanus)
  Comment on Deviante Alchemiste ~ JOLLIVET-CASTELLOT, Francois ( PDF, 17 MB ) 
» Commentary on the Smaragdine Tablet -- HORTULANUS
» Compound of Compounds -- MAGNUS, Albertus
» Concordances Alchemique  -- CARO, R. ( B. Trevisan: The Allegory of the Fountain )
» Corpus Hermeticum -- HERMES
» Crowning of Nature -- ANON.
» Curious Investigation Concerning the Nature of the Sun and Moon -- SCOTUS, Michael

»  De Chymico Miraculo ~ TREVISAN, Bernard Includes Dennis ZECHARIUS : Gallus de Codem ( PDF, 11 MB )
» De Oleo Antimonii Tractatus -- TANCKIUS
  Discourse of Fire & Salt ~ VIGNIER, Blaise de ( PDF, 16 MB )
» Divine Poemander (Corpus Hermeticum) -- HERMES TRISMEGISTUS
» Donum Dei -- AURACH, George

» Emerald Tablet -- HERMES
» Epistle to King Henry IV -- RIPLEY, G.
» Epistle on the Philosophical Fire -- PONTANUS
» Epistle Unfolded -- RIPLEY, G.
» Experiments Touching Sulphur & Mercury -- BACON, F.

» Five Preparations of the Philosophers' Mercury -- RIPLEY, G.
» Fountain of Chymical Philosophy -- PHILALETHES, Eir.
» Fountain of Philosophic Salts -- SALTZAL, Solinus

» Glory of the World -- ANON.
» Golden and Blessed Casket of Nature's Marvels -- FIGULUS
» Golden Calf -- HELVETIUS, John
» Golden Chain of Homer -- KIRCHWEGER, Anton
» Grande Oeuvre Alchimique -- JOLLIVET-CASTELLOT, Francois: (PDF)
» Great Work Photographed -- CARO, Roger

» The Hand of the Philosophers -- HOLLANDUS, J.I.
» Hermes Revealed -- CYLIANI
»  Hermetic & Alchemical Writings of Paracelsus ~ WAITE, A.E. ( PDF, 26 MB )
»  Hermetical Triumph ~ ST.-DIDIER, Limojon de ( PDF, 7.3 MB )
» Hermetic Arcanum -- D'ESPAGNET, Jean
» Hermetic Arcanum -- ANON.
» Hermetic Museum  -- WAITE, A.E.
» Hermetic Philosophy & Alchemy -- ATWOOD, Mary Anne
» Hermetic Triumph -- TOUSSAINT, Alexandre
»  Hidden Symbolism of Alchemy ~ SILBERER, Herbert ( PDF, 2 MB )
Hieroglyphics of Flamel -- FLAMEL, Nicholas

Hieroglyphic Monad -- DEE, John

» Hydropyrographum Hermeticum -- ANON.
» Hymns of Hermes -- MEAD, G.R.S. ( PDF )

» Immortal Dissolvent -- MYSTAGOGUS, Cleidophorus

» Lapis de Tribus -- BACSTROM, Sigismond
  Last Will & Testament ~ VALENTINE, Basil ( PDF, 34 MB )
» Letter to the True Disciples of Hermes -- TOUSSAINT, A.
» Lexicon of Alchemy -- RULANDUS, Martin
» Liber Patris Sapientiae -- ANON.
» Liber Secretisimus -- RIPLEY, G.
»  Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers ~ WAITE, A.E. ( PDF, 19 MB )
»  Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers ~ BARRETT, Francis ( PDF, 27 MB )
» Lumen de Lumine -- VAUGHAN, Th.

» Magnalia Naturae -- BECHER, John J.
» A Magnificent & Select Tract on Philosophical Water -- ANONYMOUS
» Making of Gold -- BACON, Francis
» Medulla Alchymiae -- RIPLEY, G.
» Memoirs of Popular Delusions (Book I, Alchemy) -- MACKAY, Charles
» Metamorphosis of Metals -- PHILALETHES, Eir.
» Mirror of Alchemy -- BACON, R.
» Mistery of the Alchymists -- RIPLEY, G.
» The Most Holy Trinosophia -- ST. GERMAIN, Comte de

» Names of the Philosophers' Stone -- GRATACOLLE, William
» New Chemical Light -- SENDIVOGIUS, Michael
» New Pearl of Great Price -- BONUS, Petrus

» Of Vulgar Antimony -- SUCHTEN, Alexander von
» Of the Investigation or Search of Perfection -- GEBER
» On the Philadelphian Gold -- ANON.
» On The Philosophers' Stone -- PEARCE (The Black Monke)
» On the Philosophers' Stone -- ANON.
» Of the Stone of the Philosophers... -- DUNSTAN
» On the Gold Medicine : Ko HUNG
» Open Entrance to the Closed Palace of the King -- PHILALETHES, Eirenaeus
» Opus Alchimica -- HOLLANDUS, J.I.
» Ordinall of Alchemy -- NORTON, Thomas
» Origines de l'Alchimie -- BERTHELOT, Marcelin
» ORME Patent -- HUDSON, David

» Parable, or Enigma of the Sages -- SENDIVOGIUS, M. 

»  Paracelsus ~ HARTMANN, Franz ( PDF, 15.6 MB )
» Philosophers' Stone -- REGARDIE, Israel
» Philosophers' Stone -- HOLLAND, Johann I.
» Philosophia Maturata -- St DUNSTAN
» Pictorial Symbols of Alchemy -- WAITE, Arthur E.; PDF format
» Praxis Spagyrica Philosophica -- ANON.
» Process-- FREHER
» Prognostications -- PARACELSUS, Th.

»  Remarks Upon Alchemy & The Alchemists ~ HITCHCOCK, E. A ( PDF, 15 MB )
» Restatement of Alchemy -- COUNCELL, J.W.
» Remonstrance of Nature -- MEUNG, Jean de
» Revelation of the True Chemical Wisdom -- GUALDUS, Fredericus
» Ripley Revived -- PHILALETHES, Eir.
» Ripley Scroll -- RIPLEY, G.
» Root of the World -- BACON, R.
» Rosarium Philosophorum -- VILLANOVA, Arnold de
» Rosicrucian Aphorisms and Process -- BACSTROM, Sigismond
» Rosicrucian Secrets --DEE, John

» Sanguis Naturae -- GRUMMET, Christopher
» Secret Book of Artephius -- ARTEPHIUS
» Secreta Alchymiae -- KALID
» Secret of the Golden Flower -- ANON.
» Short Inquiry Concerning the Hermetic Art -- PHILALETHES, Eugenius
» Short Manuduction to the Coelestial Ruby -- PHILALETHES, Eir.
» Short Work... -- RIPLEY, G.
» Six Keys -- EUDOXUS
» Splendor Solis -- TRISMOSIN, Solomon
» Stone of the Philosophers -- KELLY, Edward
» The Story of Alchemy & the Beginnings of Chemistry -- MUIR, M.M.P.
» Subtle Allegory Concerning the Secrets of Alchemy -- MAIER, Michael
» Summary of Philosophy -- FLAMEL, Nicholas
» Summary of the Rosarium of Villa Nova -- LACINIUS, Giovanni

» Testament of Cremer -- CREMER
» Testament -- FLAMEL, N.
  Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum : ASHMOLE, Elias ( PDF, 29 MB )
Theoretical Background of Elixir Alchemy -- NEEDHAM, Joseph

They Made the Philosophers' Stone
» Tincture of the Philosophers -- PARACELSUS, T.
» Tomb of Semiramus -- ANON. (SEMIRAMUS)
» Tomb of Semiramus -- SEMIRAMUS
» Tract of Great Price -- ANON.
» Tract on the Tincture and Oil of Antimony -- BACON, Roger
» Traite de Hermetisme et D'Art Spagyrique (Azoth) -- JOLLIVET-CASTELOT, F. (PDF)
» Le Traite Symbolique de la Pierre Philosophale -- BARCHUSEN, Johannes
» Transmutation of Base Metals Into Silver and Gold -- BEUTHER, David
» Transmutation of C to O -- JOVITSCHISCH, Milorad
» Transmutations of Nuclear Waste -- NELSON, R.
» Transmutation of Ore -- MORAY, Thomas
» Transmutations of U & Hg -- GASCHLER, Alois
» Treasure of Treasures -- PARACELSUS, T.
» Treatise of Mercury and the Philosophers' Stone -- RIPLEY, G.
» Treatise on Gold -- AGRICOLA
» A Treatise on the Great Art -- PERNETY, A.
» Triumphal Chariot of Antimony -- VALENTINE, Basil
» Turba Philosophorum -- ANON.
» Twelve Gates -- RIPLEY, G.
» Twelve Keys -- VALENTINE, B.

» Verbum Dismissum -- TREVISAN, B.
» Virgin of the World -- HERMES TRISMEGISTUS
» Verses -- ANON.

» War of the Knights -- STERNHALS, Johann
» Water Stone of the Wise -- SIEBMACHUS, Johannes
» Words to Aristeus' Son -- ARISTEUS
» Work of Saturn -- HOLLANDUS, Johan I.
  Works of Thomas Vaughan ( Eugenius Philalethes) ~ WAITE, A.E. (Editor) ( PDF, 27 MB )

» Zoroaster's Cave -- MITRAS, Anton






The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy

Paperback  (ISBN-13: 9780521273817 | ISBN-10: 0521273811)

Sir Isaac Newton left at his death a large collection of papers on alchemy, mostly in his own handwriting; the importance of this legacy has been debated ever since. When it first appeared, Professor Dobb’s detailed analysis of the foundations of Newton’s alchemical pursuits further stimulated interest in the subject by firmly establishing the importance of alchemy in Newton’s thought. This book sets the foundations of Newton’s alchemy in their historical context in Restoration England. It is shown that alchemical modes of thought and particularly those of a Neoplatonic kind, were quite strong in many of those who provided the dynamism for the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century and that these modes of thought had important relationships with general movements for reform in the same period: reform of religion, philosophy, learning, society and of man himself. Newton’s alchemy is thus seen as a critical link between Renaissance Hermeticism and the rational chemistry and mechanics of the eighteenth century.


List of plates; Preface;

1. 'The Hunting of the Greene Lyon';

2. Conceptual Background for Seventeenth-Century Alchemy;

3. Seventeenth-Century Alchemy;

4. Chemistry and Alchemy at Cambridge;

5. Newton's Earliest Alchemy: 1668–75;

6. Newton's Integration of Alchemy and Mechanism;



Selected Bibliographies;




‘Not every first book suffices to establish a reputation. Mrs Dobb’s superb achievement does just that … No one interested in seventeenth century science should allow himself to miss the work.’

 Journal of the History of Medicine


‘Dobbs’s book should be read not only by scholars of Newton: it should be basic reading for students of the enlightenment as well as for historians interested in the connection between Renaissance Neoplatonism, broadly interpreted and the origins of modern thought.’

The Eighteenth Century









COMMENTS ON TRANSMUTATION ARE BELOW THE RECIPES; also links which provide the images and an htm file that will help with visualization of the atom as it truly is.

You will want to examine this new source of highly detailed information

at the bottom is a letter from someone who followed instructions with a bit of creative ingenuity and had solid success.
Last modified March 03, 2006
It was Joe Champion who was, I believe, imprisoned for this process.

Joe Champion
4833  Woodmere Fairway E-1
Scottsdale, Arizona  85251

(602)481-6249  (home)

Personal Profile:


Research into the Field of Low Energy                   1989 - Present
Nuclear Transmutation

In 1989 I was fortunate to witness a phenomena which for all intents and purposes has been ruled by the established scientific community as an impossible event. In my observation of an experiment being performed by a non-scientific person, I observed what appeared to be the instant conversion of one element to another. This "conversion" occurred under conditions wherein the applied energies were lower than those normally considered possible.

Replication of this event under controlled conditions caused me to consider the fact that nuclear events could occur under two sets of conditions; the accepted norm of "high energy physics" and under a low energy nuclear exchange.

Since the initial introduction to this event, I have dedicated full time to the cause and potential effects of this discovery. In an attempt to fully comprehend my findings I have collaborated with institutions throughout the world to solidify my position and priority.

Work Experience;

Discovery Publishing                      1992 - Present
Westboro, Wisconsin
Phoenix, Arizona

Performed functional testing of low energy nuclear transmutation reactions. Position includes interaction with academic, government and private research laboratories. Both domestic and international, to assimilate foundation data that low energy nuclear events do in fact occur in nature and are reproducible under controlled laboratory conditions. Information gathered was published in professional and public journals


Instituto TE.S.R.E.


Roberto A. Monti


(cold fusions and cold fissions)



	At the end of October 1988 I made a summary of the ideas about 
the structure of the atom which I developed since I was a student (1).
	At the beginning of February 1989 a new model of the atom was 
completed, and in light of this new model, I reconstructed the Periodic 
Table of the Elements (2).
	I have never had the possibility to make any experiment, but the 
experimental foundations of this model could be found, in my opinion, in 
the papers of Thomson, Parson, Lewis, Allen, Harkins, Kervran and 
Borghi (3).
	Finally, at the beginning of 1991, I made a summary of my ideas 
about aether and matter in two papers (4), (5).
	Since that time I was waiting for the occasion to make some 
	This occasion came to me in April 1992, through Prof. Bockris.
	The results of these experiments are the following:


	The final product of the ignition showed in crease of B (beta) 
radiation greater than twice the measured background.
	The mixture before ignition contained less than 20 p.p.m. of gold.
	After the ignition, the mixture contained more than 400 p.p.m. of 

Experiment 2.

	Experiment 2 consisted in the ignition of the following mixture of 

Gold ore		100 g	(Action Mining, 0.047 Oz./ton Au,
					0.14 Oz./ton Ag).

PbO			  20 g	(Johnson Matthey, 99.99%)

C			150 g	(Johnson Matthey, 300 mesh, 99.5 %)

KNOs			450 g	(Baker, 99.2 %)

S			  30 g	(Spectrum)

Hg2Cl2		  20 g	(Fisher, 99.8 %)

	Fire assay Flux No ("o" is superscript)  486, Action Mining 
Services Inc.
	The final product of the ignition showed the following results:

1)	The total B (beta) radiation count was 2.2 -10^4 CPM and five 
different energy peaks were observed.

2)	The mixture before ignition contained certainly less than 20 p.p.m. 
of gold
	After the ignition, the mixture contained 1700 p.p., of gold.

Consiglio Nationale Delle Richerce
Instituto TE.S.R.E.
( Studio e Technologie delle Radiazioni Extraterrestri)
Via De Castagnoli  I  40129   Bologna
Tel 051-28 7011  Fax  229702  -  telex  511250  CNR  BO  I

	Roberto A. Monti



Part I ; A new model of the atom.

On the basis of Thomson's, Parson's, Lewis, Allen's and Harkins' hypotheses a new model of the atom is advanced, characterized by the following features: 1) substantial asymmetry of the Coulomb electric and magnetic fields of electrons and protons: 2) existence of positions of stable electromagnetic equilibrium of electrons in the vicinity of nuclei; 3) the neutron is a particular "bond state" of the hydrogen atom; 4) the nuclei, whose dimensions are greater than supposed by Rutherford, are composite structures of hydrogen atoms, of period 4 (Alpha-extended model); 5) Physical and chemical properties of each atom depend on the various, possible, isomeric configurations.


In the light of this new model, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been reconstructed.

Part II : Experimental evidence for the Alpha-extended model.

The genesis of the elements and the Slpha-extended model of the atom are shown by means of: 1) neutron synthesis, starting from a cold plasma of protons and electrons; 2) the synthesis of deuterium, Tritium, Helium-3 and Helium-4, starting from the hydrogen, ultra cold neutrons and thermal neutrons; 3) the production an decay of Helium-B; 4) the production and decay of the nuclei from 11 a (alpha?) to 18 a (alpha?) ; 5) "cold fusion" of Iron-56 ; 6) cold fission; 7) carbon isomeric configurations (allotropic forms); 8) cold fusion in metal lattices; 9) biological cold fusions and cold fissions (weak energy transmutations); 10) the distribution of the scattered radiation.


(1) R.A. Monti. A brief history of the atom, cold fusion and cold fission. Proceedings of the international Conference: "What Physics for the next century?" Ischia, Italy, 29 Ray-I June 1991

			RECIPE #  3

     In response to many questions about this:

The Quartz Geode is what should be used instead of the ceramic
mortar when using the procedure followed in Recipe #1, avoiding
the absorption of the Arsenic and the diminishment  of results.

The electrodes inserted into the mixture are copper coated or copper.

No sources for parts and equipment are available, you will have to check

There IS a device that will plug into house current and give the specified
electrical input in DC. That device costs $250.00.

The process can take up to five hours. Be meticulous and precise in
measurements. Keep exact records. Do not try this to get rich. You may
get into deep trouble.

Small things can frustrate immediate success. Be cautious and patient.

This can result in explosions.  The vapors are also dangerous.

.........  zeropoint

items needed

1. 1/4 oz. silver shavings 99% pure
2. 3 oz. sulfur powder (pharmaceutical grade)
3. 10 oz. Cinnabar with no TRACES of gold (also known as
     a mineral, Mercuric Sulfide, Hgs)- powder it
4. 1 quartz geode 
5. 4  12 volt car batteries
6. 2 lead (Pb - the element) copper electrodes

place all shavings and powder into Quartz Geode, connect 
car batteries to equal 48 volts at 3 amp per minute, place 
leads into powder in Quartz Geode.     Wait 25 minutes

produces 1.75 ounces of gold

don't get greedy, do exactly as stated

larger amounts at one time will produce radioactive gold, 
you can repeat the procedure to make more gold.  Wear 
mask!!!!!!!! and gloves!!!!

"got this off the net"  
====> source is traced to:  
http://www.geocities.com/Area51/9357/ <<== at this site, 
go to the link for "tribute"     .... You will find that the cinnabar
which Is WILDLY variable in price, from less than $200 to $900/oz, 
can be substituted with one ounze of mercury.   ***If you go into the 
"tribute" section you will find another link to where the original 
handwritten copy is found. ***  Do not hesitate to call the webmaster
 by phone to consult on this or to give information such as sources for 
cheap materials.  Also, the quartz geode with LARGE crystals may be 
	A frequently asked question is about the electrodes.  These should
 be LEAD on the outside with copper feeds to the battery or the rheostat.
  Don't talk too much about what you are doing.  USA is expected to go 
down the toilet beginning summer 1999, then, there will be too much
chaos for much policing, and you can be more public, if money is worth


This site will eventually and soon include the explanations for how these effects are possible. It is very simple but depends on the visualization of the ACTUAL shape of the atoms involved and how they interact. This information is dispersed throughout the page and will be pathed to this first link dealing with transmutation.

It was an ancient Arabic text which caused the infamous quest to make gold from base metals. The text described the testing of a preparation of medicine, "if when flame is applied to the powder, the powder turns to gold, the medicine is ready and should be taken." This science depends on the facts articulated in the new science of ORMES. The formation of ORMES as described in the link to David Hudson's site. The means of determining the nature of the shape of the atom and of its substructure is esoteric in nature, Kundalini.

The results of many overunity inventors end up in being piles of dust... the metal device turns to powder on the lab bench, as is described in japanese.htm. It is this powder that is the key. It is possible to make ORMES that when ingested do heal. Subsequent eating of certain of these preparations render the person a spirit who may spend millions of years in the state of the ethereal and require special fixation to be able to materialize. It is suggested that various diabolical practises are merely rituals intended to give purchase to the material world to persons who very long ago ate such preparations but cannot orient to our state without contrivances by fools who engage is certain practises. The ability to manipulate matter and circumstances in this manner, scalar physics and, with respect to transmutation itself, frank CORRECT chemistry/physics, is that "magic" which the Holy Bible says will disappear, e.g., be forgotten. The keeping of this science from the public is designed to allow maximum shock value when it is implemented.

Paranormal Observations Of ORMES Atomic structure This link is defunct in its original location and is provided with images that show the atomic structure and substructure as visualized by the unusual means described in this large htm file. The images will be hooked up to the htm by April 2, 1998. And otherwise placed in this paragraph. The viewing of the images and the understanding of what they show will explain the simplicity of transmutation. bar.gif, dumbell.gif, dumbval.gif, subhelix.gif, rebal.gif. ftp/ pictures/ subdirectory. Gold atom in rest state, dumbval shows gold in high-pin state. Flanges at ends are valence attachment points which, in high spin state allow for Cooper Pairing of the atom with itself or another atom. subhelix.gif shows substructure of the atom itself. bar.gif shows another one of the several types of atomic configuration for another element.

    From: "Fourth Millennium" 

    You are welcome, Very welcome. Do be discrete about this. USA itself is using this process to help to fund SDI (star wars). Their colleagues don't like for the cat to be out of the bag. later. zeropoint From: xxxx Subject:
    Feedback from Web site/gold

    Hi to all at ZAP


    I have just completed the successful transmutation of gold as given by the recipe on your site. This is the one involving the use of silver, mercury & sulpher.

    I was very skeptical that this could possibly work, but since I had on hand some .999% pure silver in coins,( Liberty Silver 1 oz ) I was able to proceed with only the minor expense of purchasing the sulfur and Cinnabar (mercury). I was also concerned with the possible fumes from the reaction and so arranged an extractor fan to suck out fumes via a 6in chimney flue using a discarded computor cooling fan. this worked well and no problems were experienced with dangerous fumes. Another concern was the regulating of the current to 3 amps a min, this is a non scientific term as current flow is not measured in time but in instantaneous amperage, well in any event we set up a Rheostat to limit current to 3amps as the flow rate. using a dashboard lamp dimmer from a wrecked truck and a multimeter to show the current.

    The whole thing sure looked weird in the shed, but WOW the results say it all... I am astonished that this kind of information is available, and even more amazed that it WORKS.

    I have several more coins to file down to powder, that's the hard part, I didn't want to use a grindstone for fear of contamination of the formula with stone particles, maybe I will give it a go as it seems a lot of the mixture is dross in any event, and I am sure a few micrograms of stone will be absorbed as part of it, after it cools and hardens.

    Once again THANK YOU, I am now sure I will be able to produce about 50 oz gold with the remaining silver I have on hand and then we will see what to do next.

    You may be interested to know that here in xxxxxxxxxx a person who finds gold as in prospecting, does not have to pay tax on it, it is redeemable for cash at the xxxxxxxxxxxx, some 120 miles from where I live, when I have finished the 50 oz

    I will pour it all into one bar and take it up there, the estimated value is $12500:00 xx, so you can see why I am so happy. thanks again...








    Hg : from 29 mg  =>  33 mg  !!!

    Βρέθηκε ότι ο υδράργυρος sε καινούργιες λάμπες ήταν λιγότερος όταν συγκρίθηκε με ίδιου τύπου και μεγέθους λάμπες που είχαν χρησιμοποιηθεί :

    Έρευνα τού 1992 τής Υπηρεσίας Προστασίας Περιβάλλοντος των ΗΠΑ,


    σε 25 σωληνωτές λάμπες 4 ποδών βρέθηκε ότι ο υδράργυρος ήταν :

    29 mg σε κάθε μια από τις καινούργιες


    33 mg  στις χρησιμοποιημένες.....   saved mercury.txt













    The Dwellings of the Philosophers












    Metallic-Transmutations by Acetic Acid

    Health reasons prevented R. A. Monti to present the paper to ICCF-9.

    We wish to thank Hal Fox for publishing it now in J. N. E.

    Roberto A. Monti Researcher.


    Research Director.

    Monti America Corporation

    E-mail: monti@bo.iasf.cnr.it  

    Gerardina A. Cesarano Montiesearch AssistantMonti America Corporation

    E-mail: cesarano.monti@lowenergytransmutations.org




    http://www.lowenergytransmutations.org/iccf9.htm    saved here as   iccf9.htm


    Metallic Transmutations induced by Acetic Acid. 

    AbstractA simple test can show the transmutation of  Mercury into Gold,

    proving that Lavoisier's Principle is experimentally groundless and that Alchemy is an Experimental Science.

     The "Principle" of Lavoisier.


    In his Traite Elementaire de Chimie, Lavoisier gives "the key and  the rules of the new system of Chemistry". (1)

    On vol. IV, p.176, we can read: "New (term): Gold. Old (Alchemic) correspondent: Sun".

    The description of Gold is then followed by the statement: "It seems impossible that for centuries Sects of Alchemists tried to change less precious elements into Gold".

    From the point of view of Lavoisier: "In all Chemical Reactions the same quantity of matter is present before and after the reactions".  (1)

    Lavoisier consequently hypothesizes that in a Chemical Reaction transmutations from one element to another do not occur ("Principle" of Lavoisier).

    One cannot, for example, make Gold from Mercury by means of a Chemical Reaction.

    Lavoisier was a very talented and well-educated man. The fact that he was trying to "translate" the "old" Alchemic terminology into the "new system of Chemistry" shows that he was aware of Alchemy.

    We can certainly suppose, for example, that he had within his grasp the famous Biblioteque des Philosophes Chimiques of Salmon, (1672) with the works of Geber and Filalete.  (2)

    In Geber's Summa Perfectionis the first step to prepare the Philosophical Mercury (a peculiar isomeric configuration of Mercury)  (3) is "to purify Mercury with good vinegar".  (4)

    In his Principles, point 7, Filalete states clearly that "it is necessary to wash the Mercury with vinegar and Salammoniac".  (5)

    Moreover, in his Open Entrance to the Closed Palace of the King, Filalete states unambiguously that: "Mercury can become the mother of all the metals. From Mercury, as a matter of fact, I can obtain everything, also the Sun (Gold) and the Moon (Silver), without the Transmutation Elixir" (the Philosopher Stone-a catalyst for the transmutation of Mercury into Gold).  (6)

    Unfortunately Lavoisier could not test the metallic transmutations induced by Acetic Acid. Or because the correspondent chemical reaction is very slow and he was not enough patient, or because during the French Revolution, on May 8, 1794, he was beheaded, and could work no more.


    Preparing the components to destroy the nuclear waste.


    Mercury Nitrate is one of the components that we use to destroy the radioactive nuclear waste.  (7)

    Given the high cost of pure Mercury, EUCAN Technologies asked if we had any problem using scrap Mercury coming from Electric Switches.

    The answer was: no objections if the Mercury is enough clean.

    Consequently 50Kg of Mercury were bought for a few dollars and Leon Theriault, the head technician of EUCAN, decided to "wash" it with vinegar, as "he had seen to be in use in a mine".  (8)

    Owing to a stop in the preparation of the components for the disposal of the nuclear waste, an amount of Mercury remained "under washing" for a few months.

    When it was used later, to obtain Mercury Nitrate, L. Theriault draw our attention on a surprising phenomenon: at the end of the dissolution of Mercury in Nitric Acid, a few milligrams of Gold remained.

    We made immediately a test: the "untreated Mercury" was totally dissolved by Nitric Acid; the Mercury "treated" with vinegar left systematically traces of Gold.

    Aware since many years about the role played by vinegar and Acetic Acid in the Alchemic processes (9), back in Italy we decided to try a simple application of the Principle of Banality (a variation of Ockam's razor) (7) on 1kg of "treated Mercury" which we brought from Canada.

    We decided to prepare a "tres bon vinaigre" (very strong vinegar) and to compare the effects with those of a "bon vinaigre" (good vinegar).  (4)

    Consequently we divided in two parts our supply of "treated Mercury".

    We washed half of it (500g) with white wine vinegar and the other 500g with a mixture (50%) of white wine vinegar and Acetic Acid, for 2 months.

    After 2 months we took 100g from the first 500g, and 100g from the second 500g.


    When dissolved in Nitric 1 to 5 the first 100g gave 13mg, the second 100g gave 55mg of Gold.

    After two more months another 100g of Mercury treated with the mixture of vinegar and Acetic Acid, gave 88mg of Gold.

    We have made Gold many times, in different ways, but the Gold obtained directly from Mercury in this way is the most beautiful we have ever seen. (see photographs)


    "Treatment" of the Mercury, to make Gold.


    Extract your Mercury from Cinnabar (HgS) by roasting, or get it from a Chemical Supply Company. We suggest at least 1kg of Mercury (two will be better).

    We have observed that the "purified" Mercury gives very poor results because in the process of "purification" some properties are lost (the Mercury goes in the wrong isomeric configuration).  (3)

    The Mercury from Electric Switches is usually not purified. This is why it works better. Best of all will work the Mercury from HgS.

    Once obtained your Mercury (we suggest 1 or 2 kg ) do the following.

    1)     Divide the Mercury in stocks of 500g.

    2)     Take a 100g sample from each of the 500g and dissolve it into a solution of 1 to 5 Nitric Acid, heating at about 80°. Normally it will dissolve completely. If not take note of what remains.

    3)     Put the remaining 400g in a glass container (1 liter Kerr Jars are good).

    4)     Prepare a solution of 1/2 liter white wine vinegar and 1/2 liter of Acetic Acid.

    5)     Put 1/2 liter of the mixture into the Jar, so that the Mercury will be completely covered.

    6)     Shake the Jar by hand for a few minutes until the Mercury is reduced to tiny beads, so that the surface in contact with the liquid is a maximum.

    7)     Do the shaking one or two times a day.

    8)     After about two weeks some kind of sludge comes out from the Mercury and "covers" it.    

    If you have two Jars: a) you can keep one clean shaking and substituting the solution with a new 1/2 liter. Save the 1/2 liter solution in another Kerr Jar. In one day the sludge will go to the bottom and you can recover and use again the clean mixture. b) just shake the solution in the second Jar one or two times a day. Look if there is any difference in the final results.

    9)     After about two months (with Mercury from HgS) you can make the first test:

    take 100g of the "treated Mercury" and dissolve it in 1 to 5 Nitric Acid (100cc Nitric Acid + 500cc water) at about 80°. You should find the kind of Gold shown in the photographs.

    10) You can repeat the dissolution every 15 days three more times (for each Kerr

    Jar). Pay attention to change the lids of the Kerr Jars at least every 15 days. The

    Mixture of vinegar and Acetic Acid is very corrosive: it will "eat" the lids of the Kerr Jars.

    11)  After having dissolved the Mercury pour the solution and clean the Gold (keep it

    in the beaker) with a mixture 1 to 2 Nitric Acid (100cc Nitric Acid + 200cc distilled water). Pour the 1 to 2 Nitric Acid and wash the Gold with water.

          Pour the water and dry the Gold in the beaker on a hot plate.

    12)  Look with a microscope and analyze your Gold. 

    When analyzed with SEM (Electron Microscope) it will show only Gold; but when dissolved in Acqua Regia for ICP it will show: 10% Mercury, 90% Gold, owing to its "origin" from Mercury. The source of Mercury is important owing to the different isomeric configurations which can occur in the Mercury. You can make the comparison with different types of Mercury.




    This experiment, in our opinion, is of great didactic importance. The experiment can be easily reproduced, at low expenses, in the laboratory of any University.

    It seems not showing seasonal effects and can be started and concluded in a few months.

    It shows clearly that:

    1)      The "Principle" of Lavoisier is experimentally groundless.

    2)      Alchemy is an Experimental Science.

    We strongly suggest it to the students of Chemistry.

    The source of Mercury is important: better results are obtained taking the Mercury directly from Cinnabar.   (10)




    1)      A. L. Lavoisier, Traite Elementaire de Chimie,(Italian Edition),Vol. IV,Venice, 1792.

    2)      G. Salmon, Biblioteque des Philosophes Chimiques, Paris, 1672 .

    3)      R. A. Monti, "Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: The Revival of Alchemy", Proceedings of the International Conference Space and Time, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2001, p.178.

    4)      Geber, Summa Perfectionis, Ed. Tredaniel, Paris, 1992,Vol. II, p.17.

    5)      I. Filalete, "Principles", In: J. Sadoul, The Treasure of the Alchemists (Italian Edition), Ed. Mediterranee, Roma, 1972, p.44.

    6)      I. Filalete, Open Entrance to the closed  Palace of the King (Italian Edition), Phoenix, Genova, 1987, p.11.

    7)      R. A. Monti, "Nuclear Transmutation Processes of Lead, Silver, Thorium and Uranium", ICCF-7 Proceedings, ENECO, Vancouver, 1998, p.264.

    8)      L. Theriault, Private communication to R.A. Monti.

    9)      See: G. Rupescissa, On the Preparation of the true Philosopher Stone (Italian Edition), Ed. Atanor, Roma, p.41; G. Testi, Dictionary of Alchemy and Antiquary Chemistry (Italian Edition), Ed. Mediterranee, Roma, 1980, p.73.

    10)   F. Nardin, Private communication to R. A. Monti.           



































    Giovanni Battista Della Porta



    The Fifth Book Of Natural Magick

    "Of Changing Metals."

    "Which treateth of Alchemy, showing how metals may be altered and transformed, one into another"



    saved here





    Dr. Joe Champion


    Dr. Joe Champion p

    http://www.drjoechampion.com/2009%20Notes.htm http://www.drjoechampion.com/2010%20Notes.htm http://www.drjoechampion.com/March%207%202010.htm http://www.drjoechampion.com/History/history.htm http://www.drjoechampion.com/SY/index.htm http://www.drjoechampion.com/CT/CT%20index.htm 10/08/2009   10/04/2009     9/2/2009 file  First Phonon Reactor 2001  1/10/2009 file   12/18/2008 file  12/1/2008 file   11/12/2008 file  10/2/2008 file  09/23/2008 file  09/12/2009 file  08/31/2008 file   08/26/2008 file    08/25/2008 file  08/23/2008 file  08/14/2008 file  06/24/2008 file   06/10/2008 file  Mexico Produces gold   Gold made in Belgium   Adam Waldrop's made gold in CA  Movies of DRC original gold   Want to make gold?  Are you an alchemist?   1992 setting the record straight at Texas A&M validation of my research 1994 memoirs of Joe Champion  1994 Emmens was converting silver to gold in New York  1995 Detail laboratory validation of low energy transmutation  1995 how investors are swindled out of money in mining schemes.  1995 Salt Lake City fiasco looses $8,000,000  1995 It is easy to understand that main stream scientist do not like me  1996 Two sad stories by Prof John O'M Bockris   1996 reprint of a paper from an modern day alchemist in the USA.  1996 Historical note of silver to gold  1997 Anomalous Platinum assays 1997 Private mining companies need to understand estrange ore  1997 High school replicates transmutation 1997 Neutralization of radioactive waste by Mandeville  1998 part 1 Original history notes from University of Washington  1998 Part 2 Original history notes from University of Washington  2006 Dr.C reviewing gold plated silver in California


      General table of phonon resonance

    Understanding the mathematics of phonon resonance

    A new application of phonon resonance

    Phonon Resonance in Excel spreadsheet by Adam Waldrop.  Adam was very kind to build the phonon resonance spread sheets in Excel and he supplied various graphs with it.  You must download the spreadsheet and thenopen it in your computer.

    Phonon Conversion of Silver to Gold

    a dimensional formation
    Dr. Joe Champion
    Rogue Scientist
    July 24, 2001

    This paper was prepared in 2000 and published in 2001.  Since the publication six years ago all of the mathematical formalization remain constant.  However, the application of the process has changed to produce higher yields of gold.  Now if you replicate this process and have high commercial yields of gold, I would appreciate an email.  Normally what has been observed is a conversion of 1.0% gold from the silver.  The last test of the modified system occurred on September 2007. 

    For those wanting the updated procedure or have general questions please email me drc@drjoechampion.com

    Good luck!

    Personal Note.........

    This document is the first of a series of technologies that allows for the formation of new elements by an event that has eluded science. In the first part of this paper, one can safely convert silver (Ag) to gold (Au) in the confines of their home or laboratory. Next is a the complete theory has to 'why' the process works and finally is a procedure for the production of Au in its pure state that requires laboratory apparatuses and training.


    In the formation of Ag (or other elements) from a dimensional reaction, the conversion will occur without excess energies or nuclear signatures. By heating Ag to a temperature of 43.2 oC. The principle is straightforward and simple without toxicity.

    By utilizing a heat source that is stable and capable of heating in the range of 100 => 120oC assemble a vessel similar to that shown in Figure 1.

    Allow the temperature of the silver to stabilize at the pre-mentioned temperature. It is important that you measure the temperature of the silver and not that of the sand. The function of the sand is to provide an even influx of temperature to the entire area of the silver and it provides an excellent insulator.

    The temperature of 43.2 oC is optimum under ideal conditions. However, it is possible that the temperature may vary within the statistical limits shown in Table 1. When the temperature is exact for the reaction the silver with become endothermic. This means that the temperature will be slightly greater than that of the surrounding sand. A point of interest - this reaction is the same as observed in the working Cold Fusion cells of the past. The scientists were not observing a low energy nuclear event, they were

    observing an inter-dimensional phenomenon.

    To achieve maximum convergence of Ag to Au will depend on the dwell time at resonance temperature. To date, visible conversion of Ag to Au has occurred in as little as six hours, with 2% conversion taking up to 24 hours.

    The reaction is safe and produces no toxicity's.

    Click Here for a procedure to determine if procedure is working.........


    The conversion of one element (specifically one isotope) to another through a dimensional reaction occurs under select conditions of phonon resonance. Dimensional phonon resonance occurs when the space occupied by one isotope is exactly the same as that of another isotope in its rest state. This event only occur under the following two conditions:

    • the expansion of an isotope by heating; or,
    • the contraction of an isotope by cooling.

    Due to the natural characteristics of elemental properties, this event is extremely rare and one can only force the event under select conditions. To determine the phonon resonance of an isotope, it is necessary to apply the following formula:


    whereas, d - Density in gm/cm3

    Na - Avogadro's Constant

    m - mass

    By determining the inverse, one will observe the linear atomic spacing.

    Since the resonance frequency and spacing is required for all isotopes, the calculations for most isotopes may be reviewed in the attachments to this document. Following is an abstract of the data:

    When an element is heated or cooled, the atomic spacing will change proportionally to the cube of the product of the temperature (increase/decrease) and the expansion coefficient. To understand, following is the mathematical model for determining the linear spacing in reference to temperature:

    whereas, t - temperature increase

    St - standardized temperature

    Ec - expansion coefficient

    To place this in perspective, to determine the exacting temperature for a dimensional phonon reaction to occur, requires knowing the starting element (specifically the isotope of the starting element if more than one) and the element to be produced. Once this is known, you can apply the following formula:

    This will provide the temperature required within statistical probabilities. A statistical probability deals with the least significant digit (LSD) of each variable. In the case of phonon resonance, this is limited to the density. For example, the density of Ag is 10.50 gm/cm3. Taking that the accuracy is &plusmn;1 LSD, we can establish a variable range by applying the following:

             Or, +/- 0.0009524

    To place the mathematics in perspective, following is the calculations for the conversion of Ag107 to Au.



    To find the most logical profile requires determining the basic phonon frequencies of all of the stable isotopes.

    Conversion of Al to Au

    The conversion of Al to Au is an absolute application of dimensional science. In this reaction, Au (gold) is produced in its ultra-pure state on a continuous basis. This procedure may be utilized for most elements. The basis of this dimensional occurs in the collection of atomic size particles that form near the resonant metal (in this case aluminum). Due to the size of the particles they appear in what normal chemistry would consider a gas phase. The targeted element (isotope) forms in its singular state and due to the lack of energies present. There are insufficient energies to bind the atoms into a colloidal state. This being the case, an apparatus similar to the following is required.


    In the production of gold from aluminum, the ideal temperature is 302.9 oC. These temperatures are optimum for the Al (the Al must be allowed to come into equilibrium with the furnace). Once resonance is established, production is continuous. The Au is captured in the water as it is removed from a negative pressure applied to the furnace established by the vacuum pump. However, please be aware that Al will also convert to Ag107 at a temperature of 283.7oC. To understand this, the following chart is supplied:


    As you can see, as the aluminum reaches the phonon resonance of Au it passes through the resonance of Ag. Due to the atomic spacing, Al will not form any other element near this temperature range.



    Mathematical models that were later laboratory confirmed developed the material encompassed. I could spend pages discussing the history of discovery, but at this point my mission is accomplished. For additional information, the author can be reached at:


    mail to:  drc@drjoechampion.com


    Additional Procedures for the production of Ag and Au

     addendum to: Phonon Conversion of Ag to Au
      a dimensional formation


    At the time of printing the Phonon Conversion of Ag to Au, the genesis mapping of elements was not complete. Based on the above, the following allows the other potential formation patterns for Ag and Au.


    For additional information refer to: Isotopic phonon spacing.htm

    Note: Numbers are representative in the degrees Centigrade.

    An interesting point, the above technology(s) is applied without knowledge as to why in the commercial mining field today. It is call roasting. However, to gain maximum yield from the reaction, one must utilize an apparatus similar to the one shown in Figure 2, "Phonon Conversion of Ag to Au -- a dimensional formation".


    Please note a significant point of interest. This procedure is nondescript. As easy as zinc, aluminum, titanium or silver converts into gold, so does gold convert into titanium and silver.


    Gold Detection in Silver Transformation

    To determine if the procedure is working, take either the entire piece under test or a small piece by drilling out a sample and place it in 15% nitric acid (HNO3) and distilled water.  Do this at extremely low heat (an excellent temperature is 109.7  oF.  If Au is present, it will appear as black specks floating in the nitric solution.  The larger the quantity of black specs, the larger the quantity of gold that has transformed.







    The Hermetic and alchemical writings of Paracelsus

    422 pg - (13 MB) PDF